Advertisement

Developing EAP Practitioners

  • Alex Ding
  • Ian Bruce
Chapter

Abstract

Ding and Bruce offer an in-depth critical discussion of key issues and concepts that relate to the development of EAP (English for Academic Purposes) practitioners, which they see as an ongoing, long-term process. They first address background issues that include the origins and use of the term practitioner, professionalism and EAP, as well as the limited ‘cultural capital’ that EAP practitioners bring to universities. Development is then considered in relation to the contributions of qualifications and self-directed activity, such as through reflection. In particular, they critique reflective practice and consider its limitations as a development tool. The chapter concludes by recommending the accrual of ‘cultural capital’ through scholarship and research activity as a basis for establishing the identity and agency of the practitioner.

References

  1. Akbari, R. (2007). Reflections on reflection: A critical appraisal of reflective practices in L2 teacher education. System, 35, 192–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alderson, J. C. (Ed.). (2009). The politics of language education: Individuals and institutions. Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, O. (2007). Groping in the dark or turning on the light: Routes into teaching English for academic purposes. In T. Lynch & J. Northcott (Eds.), Educating legal English specialists and teacher education in teaching EAP. Proceedings of IALS teacher education symposia, 2004 and 2006. Edinburgh, UK: Institute for Applied Language Studies, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  4. Alexander, O. (2010). The leap into TEAP: The role of the BALEAP competency framework in the professional development of new EAP teachers. In IATEFL English for specific purposes SIG (Conference title: English for academic purposes in university settings: Teacher and learner competencies). Ankara, Turkey: Bilkent University.Google Scholar
  5. Alexander, O. (2012). Exploring teacher beliefs in teaching EAP at low proficiency levels. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11, 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allwright, R. L. (2003). Exploratory practice: Rethinking practitioner research in language teaching. Language Teaching Research, 7, 113–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Allwright, R. L. (2005). From teaching points to learning opportunities and beyond. TESOL Quarterly, 39, 9–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Allwright, R. L., & Hanks, J. (2009). The developing language learner: An introduction to exploratory practice. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Archer, M. S. (2000). Being human: The problem of agency. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Archer, M. S. (2003). Structure, agency and the internal conversation. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Atkinson, B. (2012). Rethinking reflection: Teachers’ critiques. The Teacher Educator, 47, 175–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bailey, K., Berthold, B., Braunstein, B., Jagodzinski Fleischman, N., Holbrook, M., Tuman, J., et al. (1996). The language learner’s autobiography: Examining the apprenticeship of observation. In D. Freeman & J. C. Richards (Eds.), Teacher learning in language teaching. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Baleap (2008). Competency framework for teachers of English for academic purposes. Retrieved from http://www.baleap.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/teap-competency-framework.pdf
  14. Baleap. (2014). TEAP: Accreditation scheme handbook. Retrieved from https://www.baleap.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Teap-Scheme-Handbook-2014.pdf
  15. Ball, S. J. (2012). Global Education Inc.: New policy networks and the neo-liberal imaginary. Abingdon, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Barkhuizen, G. (2011). Narrative knowledging in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 45, 391–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barkhuizen, G. (2016). Narrative approaches to exploring language, identity and power in language teacher education. RELC Journal, 47, 25–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barnett, R. (Ed.). (2012). The future university: Ideas and possibilities. Abingdon, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Basturkmen, H. L. (2014). LSP teacher education: Review of literature and suggestions for the research agenda. Ibérica, 28, 17–34.Google Scholar
  20. Beauchamp, C. (2015). Reflection in teacher education: Issues emerging from a review of current literature. Reflective Practice, 16, 123–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Beck, J., & Young, M. F. (2005). The assault on the professions and the restructuring of academic and professional identities: A Bernsteinian analysis. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 26, 183–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Belcher, D. (2006). English for specific purposes: Teaching to perceived needs and imagined futures in worlds of work, study, and everyday life. TESOL Quarterly, 40, 133–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Belcher, D. (2013). The future of ESP research: Resources and access and choice. In B. Paltridge & S. Starfield (Eds.), Handbook of English for specific purposes. Boston: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  24. Bell, D. E. (2012, July). Benchmarking practitioner expertise in the teaching of EAP. Presentation at University of Nottingham, Ningbo, China.Google Scholar
  25. Bell, D. E. (2016). Practitioners, pedagogies and professionalism in English for Academic Purposes (EAP): The development of a contested field. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Nottingham, UK.Google Scholar
  26. Benesch, S. (1993). ESL, ideology, and the politics of pragmatism. TESOL Quarterly, 27, 705–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for academic purposes: Theory, politics, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Benson, P. (2011). Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning. London, England: Longman.Google Scholar
  29. Blaj-Ward, L. (2014). Researching contexts, practices and pedagogies in English for academic purposes. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Borg, S. (2009). English language teacher conceptions of research. Applied Linguistics, 30, 358–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Borg, S. (2010). Language teacher research engagement. Language Teaching, 43, 391–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Borg, S. (2011). Language teacher education. In J. Simpson (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of applied linguistics. London, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Boshier, R. (2009). Why is the scholarship of teaching and learning such a hard sell? Higher Education Research and Development, 28, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Boud, D. (2010). Relocating reflection in the context of practice. In H. Bradbury, N. Frost, S. Kilminster, & M. Zukas (Eds.), Beyond reflective practice: New approaches to professional lifelong learning. Abingdon, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Bourdieu, P. (2000). Pascalian meditations. Cambridge, England: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  36. Braun, J. A., & Crumpler, T. P. (2004). The social memoir: An analysis of developing reflective ability in a pre-service methods course. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 59–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Breen, M. (1991). Understanding the language teacher. In R. Phillipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood-Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/Second language pedagogy research. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  38. Breen, M., & Mann, S. (1997). Shooting arrows at the sun: Perspectives on a pedagogy for autonomy. In P. Benson & P. Voller (Eds.), Autonomy and independence in language learning. London, England: Longman.Google Scholar
  39. Brookfield, S. (1991). On ideology, pillage, language and risk: Critical thinking and the tensions of critical practice. Studies in Continuing Eduation, 13(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bruce, I. (2011). Theory and concepts of English for academic purposes. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Burns, A. (2005). Action research: An evolving paradigm? Language Teaching, 38, 57–74.Google Scholar
  42. Burton, J. (2009). Reflective practice. In A. Burns & J. C. Richards (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Campion, G. C. (2016). ‘The learning never ends’: Exploring teachers’ views on the transition from General English to EAP. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 23, 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Collin, S., Karsenti, T., & Komis, V. (2013). Reflective practice in initial teacher training: Critiques and perspectives. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 14, 104–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Collini, S. (2012). What are universities for? London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  46. Charles, M., & Pecorari, D. (2015). Introducing English for academic purposes. Abingdon, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Crandall, J.-A. (2000). Language teacher education. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 20, 34–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Davis, J., & Adams, N. (2000). Exploring early adolescent identity through teacher autobiography. Middle School Journal, 42, 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. New York, US: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  50. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. Chicago, IL: Regney.Google Scholar
  51. Dewey, J. (1938/2007). Experience and education. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  52. Dewey, J. (1963/1938). Experience and education. New York: Collier Books.Google Scholar
  53. Ding, A. (2016). Challenging scholarship: A thought piece. The Language Scholar, 0, 6–18.Google Scholar
  54. Ding, A., & Campion, G. (2016). EAP teacher development. In P. Shaw & K. Hyland (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English for academic purposes. Abingdon, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Dong, Y. R. (2000). Learning to see diverse students through reflective teaching portfolios. In K. E. Johnson (Ed.), Teacher education. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.Google Scholar
  56. Dudley-Evans, T., & St. John, M. J. (1998). Developments in English for specific purposes: A multi-disciplinary approach. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Edge, J. (Ed.). (2001). Case studies in TESOL practice: Action research. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.Google Scholar
  58. Edge, J. (2002). Continuing cooperative development: A discourse framework for individuals as colleagues. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ellis, R. (2010). Second language acquisition, teacher education and language pedagogy. Language Teaching, 43, 182–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Enfield, M., & Stasz, B. (2011). Presence without being present: Reflection and action in a community of practice. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 11, 108–118.Google Scholar
  61. Errey, L., & Ansell, M. A. (2001). The MA in EAP and ESP. BALEAP PIM Reports, 7. Retrieved from http://www.uefap.com/baleap/pimreports/2001/bath/errey_ansel.htm
  62. Evans, M., & ESCH, E. (2013). The elusive boundaries of second language teacher professional development. The Language Learning Journal, 41, 137–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ewer, J. R. (1983). Teacher training for EST: Problems and methods. The ESP Journal, 2, 9–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Farrell, T. (2007). Reflective language teaching: From research to practice. London, England: Continuum.Google Scholar
  65. Farrell, T. (2011). Exploring the professional role identities of experienced ESL teachers through reflective practice. System, 39, 55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Farrell, T. (2012). Reflecting on reflective practice: (Re)Visiting Dewey and Schön. TESOL Journal, 3, 7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Farrell, T. (2016). The practices of encouraging TESOL teachers to engage in reflective practice: An appraisal of recent research contributions. Language Teaching Research, 20, 223–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Fendler, L. (2003). Teacher reflection in a hall of mirrors: Historical influences and political reverberations. Educational Researcher, 32, 16–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Finlay, L. (2008). Reflecting on ‘Reflective practice’ [PBPL paper 52]. Retrieved from http://www.open.ac.uk/opencetl/resources/pbpl-resources/finlay-l-2008-reflecting-reflective-practice-pbpl-paper-52
  70. Flowerdew, J., & Peacock, M. (2001). Research perspectives on English for academic purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Fook, J. (2010). Beyond reflective practice: Reworking the ‘critical’ in critical reflection. In H. Bradbury, N. Frost, S. Kilminster, & M. Zukas (Eds.), Beyond reflective practice: New approaches to professional lifelong learning. Abingdon, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. Freeman, D. (2002). The hidden side of the work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach. A perspective from north American educational research on teacher education in English language teaching. Language Teaching, 35, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Fulcher, G. (2009). The commercialisation of language provision at university. In J. C. Alderson (Ed.), The politics of language education: Individuals and institutions. Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  74. Furedi, F. (2017). What’s happened to the university? A sociological exploration of its infantilisation. Abingdon, England: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  75. Galea, S. (2012). Reflecting reflective practice. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44, 245–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gao, X. (2007). A tale of Blue Rain Café: A study on the online narrative construction about a community of English learners on the Chinese mainland. System, 35, 259–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gatenby, E. V. (1951). The training of language teachers. ELT Journal, 8, 199–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gillway, M. (2017). BALEAP News. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 25, A2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hacker, P., & Barkhuizen, G. (2008). Autonomous teachers, autonomous cognition: Developing personal theories through reflection in language teacher education. In T. Lamb & H. Reinders (Eds.), Learner and teacher autonomy: Concepts realities and responses. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  80. Hadley, G. (2015). English for academic purposes in neoliberal universities: A critical grounded theory. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
  81. Hall, D. R. (2013). Teacher education for languages for specific purposes. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied linguistics. Oxford, England: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  82. Hamp-Lyons, L. (2011a). English for academic purposes: 2011 and beyond. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10, 2–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hamp-Lyons, L. (2011b). English for academic purposes. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (Vol. 2). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  84. Hamp-Lyons, L., & Hyland, K. (2005). Some further thoughts on EAP and JEAP. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 4, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Harwood, N. 2017. The EAP practitioner as researcher and disseminator of knowledge. Retrieved from https://teachingeap.files.wordpress.com/2017/01/restes-talk-nigel-harwood.pdf
  86. Harwood, N., & Petric, B. (2011). English for academic purposes. In J. Simpson (Ed.), Handbook of applied linguistics. London, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  87. Hébert, C. (2015). Knowing and/or experiencing: A critical examination of the reflective models of John Dewey and Donald Schön. Reflective Practice, 16, 361–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hedgcock, J. S. (2002). Towards a socioliterate approach to second language teacher education. MLJ, 86, 299–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hobbs, V. (2007). Faking it or hating it: Can reflective practice be forced? Reflective Practice, 8(3), 405–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Holborow, M. (2015). Language and neoliberalism. Abingdon, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  91. Holmwood, J. (2011). A manifesto for the public university. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  92. Hudson, C., & Williams, J. (2016). Why academic freedom matters: A response to current challenges. London, England: Civitas.Google Scholar
  93. Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (1987). English for specific purposes: A learning-centred approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hyland, K. (2006). English for academic purposes: An advanced resource book. Abingdon, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  95. Hyland, K. (2012). The past is the future with the lights on: Reflections on AELFE’s 20th birthday. Iberica, 42, 29–42.Google Scholar
  96. Hyland, K., & Shaw, P. (2016). Introduction. In K. Hyland & P. Shaw (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English for academic purposes. Abingdon, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  97. Jiménez Raya, M., & Vieira, F. (2008). Teacher development for learner autonomy: Images and issues from five projects. In M. Jiménez Raya & T. Lamb (Eds.), Pedagogy for autonomy in modern languages education: Theory, practice and teacher education. Dublin, Eire: Authentik.Google Scholar
  98. Johns, T. F. (1981). Some problems of a world-wide profession. In The ESP teacher: Role, development and prospects. London: British Council English Teaching Information Centre. ELT Document 112Google Scholar
  99. Johnson, K. E. (1996). The role of theory in L2 teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 30, 711–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Johnson, K. E., & Golombeck, P. R. (2002). Teachers’ narrative inquiry as professional development. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Jordan, R. R. (1997). English for academic purposes: A guide and resource book for teachers. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kabilan, M. K. (2007). English language teachers reflecting on reflections: A Malaysian experience. TESOL Quarterly, 41, 681–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  104. Korthagen, F. A. J., & Wubbles, T. (1995). Characteristics of reflective practitioners: Towards an operationalization of the concept of reflection. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 1, 51–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Krzanowski, M. (2001). S/he holds the Trinity/UCLES Dip: Are they ready to teach EAP. Conference ‘Teacher Training for EAP’. Bath, England: University of Bath.Google Scholar
  106. Kumaravadivelu, B. (2001). Toward a postmethod pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 537–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lamb, T. (2008). Learner and teacher autonomy: Synthesizing an agenda. In T. Lamb & H. Reinders (Eds.), Learner and teacher autonomy: Concepts, realities and responses. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Larrivee, B. (2000). Transforming teaching practice: Becoming the critically reflective teacher. Reflective Practice, 1, 293–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lawes, S. (2002). Trends in modern foreign languages teacher education—The role of higher education. Language Learning Journal, 25(1), 40–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lawes, S. (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and foreign language teaching. Language Learning Journal, 28, 22–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lee, I. (2007). Preparing pre-service English teachers for reflective practice. ELT Journal, 61, 321–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Leung, C. (2009). Second language teacher professionalism. In A. Burns & J. C. Richards (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Lillis, T., & Tuck, J. (2016). Academic literacies: A critical lens on reading and writing within the academy. In K. Hyland & P. Shaw (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English for academic purposes. Abingdon, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  114. Little, D. (1995). Learning as dialogue: The dependence of learner autonomy on teacher autonomy. System, 23, 175–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Little, D. (2000). Learner autonomy and human interdependence: Some theoretical and practical consequences of a social-interactive view of cognition, learning and language. In B. Sinclair, I. Mcgrath, & T. Lamb (Eds.), Learner autonomy, teacher autonomy: Future directions. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  116. Loughran, J. J. (2000, July). Effective reflective practice. A paper presented at Making a difference through Reflective practices: Values and Actions Conference. University College of Worcester, UK.Google Scholar
  117. Lynch, M. (2000). Against reflexivity as an academic virtue and source of privileged knowledge. Theory, Culture and Society, 17, 26–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mann, S. (2005). The language teacher’s development. Language Teaching, 38, 103–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mann, S., & Walsh, S. (2013). RP or ‘RIP’: A critical perspective on reflective practice. Applied Linguistics Review, 4, 291–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Maton, K. (2003). Reflexivity, relationism and research: Pierre Bourdieu and the epistemic conditions of social scientific knowledge. Space and Culture, 6, 52–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mclaughlin, T. (1999). Beyond the reflective teacher. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 31, 9–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Mitchell, J. M. (1953). The reproduction exercise. ELT-J, 8, 59–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Molesworth, M., Scullion, R., & Nixon, E. (Eds.). (2011). The marketisation of higher education: The student as consumer. Abingdon, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  124. Moon, J. A. (2000). Reflection in learning and professional development: Theory and practice. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  125. Moore, R. (2009). Towards the sociology of truth. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  126. Morgan, B. (2009). Fostering transformative practitioners for critical EAP: Possibilities and challenges. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 8, 86–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Noffke, S., & Brennan, M. (2005). The dimensions of reflection: A conceptual and contextual analysis. International Journal of Progressive Education, 1, 58–78.Google Scholar
  128. Raimes, A. (1991). Instructional balance: From theories to practices in the teaching of writing. In J. Alatis (Ed.), Georgetown University round table on language and linguistics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  129. Reynolds, M. (1998). Reflection and critical reflection in management learning. Management Learning, 29, 183–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Richards, J. (2008). Second language teacher education today. RELC Journal, 39, 158–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Richards, J., & Farrell, T. (2005). Professional development for language teachers: Strategies for teacher learning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Richards, J., & Lockhart, C. (1994). Reflective teaching in second language classrooms. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Richards, J., & Nunan, D. (Eds.). (1990). Teacher observation in second language teacher education. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  134. Richards, K. (1997). Teachers for specific purposes. In R. Howard & G. Brown (Eds.), Teacher education for LSP. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  135. Roberts, J. (1998). Language teacher education. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  136. Roberts, P. (2001). Teacher training for EAP. BALEAP PIM reports, vol. 7. Retrieved from http://www.uefap.com/baleap/pimreports/2001/bath/roberts.htm
  137. Robinson, P. C. (1991). ESP today: A practitioner’s guide. Hemel Hempstead, England: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  138. Russell, T. (2013). Has reflective practice done more harm than good in teacher education? Phronesis, 2, 80–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sarfatti Larson, M. (2013). The rise of professionalism: Monopolies of competence and sheltered markets. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  140. Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  141. Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  142. Scott, T. (2005). Creating the subject of portfolios reflective writing and the conveyance of institutional prerogatives. Written Communication, 22, 3–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sharpling, G. (2002). Learning to teach English for academic purposes: Some current training and development issues. English Language Teacher Education and Development, 6, 82–94.Google Scholar
  144. Shepherd, J. (2007). Foreign wars. The Guardian, February 20.Google Scholar
  145. Shulman, L. S. (1998). Theory, practice, and the education of professionals. The Elementary School Journal, 98, 511–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Shulman, L. S. (2000). From Minsk to Pinsk: Why a scholarship of teaching & learning? The Journal of Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 1, 48–52.Google Scholar
  147. Smith, R. (2003). Pedagogy for autonomy as (becoming-) appropriate methodology. In R. Smith & D. Palfreyman (Eds.), Learner autonomy across cultures: Language education perspectives. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  148. Smith, R. (2015). Teacher research in language teaching: A critical analysis. ELT Journal, 69, 205–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Smith, R., & Erdoğan, S. (2008). Teacher-learner autonomy: Programme goals and student-teacher constructs. In T. Lamb & H. Reinders (Eds.), Learner and teacher autonomy: Concepts, realities and responses. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  150. Stapleton, P., & Shao, Q. (2016). A worldwide survey of MATESOL programs in 2014: Patterns and perspectives. Language Teaching Research. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1362168816659681
  151. Stevenson, M., & Kokkin, B. (2007). Pinned to the margins? The contextual shaping of academic language and learning practice. Journal of Academic Language and Learning, 1, 44–54.Google Scholar
  152. Stewart, T. (2006). Teacher-researcher collaboration or teachers’ research? TESOL Quarterly, 40, 421–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Strauss, P. (2012). ‘The English is not the same’: Challenges in thesis writing for second language speakers of English. Teaching in Higher Education, 17, 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Strevens, P. (1988). The learner and teacher of ESP. In D. Chamberlain & R. J. Baumgardner (Eds.), ESP in the classroom: Practice and evaluation. London: Modern English Publications in association with the British Council. ELT Document 128.Google Scholar
  155. Swales, J. M. (1990). Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  156. Swales, J. M. (2009). Incidents in an educational life: A memoir (of sorts). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Szesztay, M. (2004). Teachers’ ways of knowing. ELT Journal, 58, 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Taillefer, G. (2013). CLIL in higher education: The (perfect?) crossroads of ESP and didactic reflection. Asp, 63, 31–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Tanner, R., Longayroux, D., Beijaard, D., & Verloop, N. (2000). Piloting portfolios: Using portfolios in pre-service teacher education. ELT Journal, 54, 20–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Thompson, N., & Pascal, J. (2012). Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 13, 311–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Trappes-Lomax, H., & Mcgrath, I. (Eds.). (1999). Theory in language teacher education. London, England: Longman.Google Scholar
  162. Turner, J. (2004). Language as academic purpose. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 3, 95–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Urzúa, A., & Vásquez, C. (2008). Reflection and professional identity in teachers’ future-oriented discourse. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 1935–1946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Vieria, F., Mamede, A., & Lima, C. (2008). Staging pedagogy for autonomy: Two plays. In M. Jiménez Raya & T. Lamb (Eds.), Pedagogy for autonomy in modern languages education: Theory, practice and teacher education. Dublin, Ireland: Authentik.Google Scholar
  165. Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training foreign language teachers: A reflective approach. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  166. Warin, J., Maddock, M., Pell, A., & Hargreaves, L. (2006). Resolving identity dissonance through reflective and reflexive practice in teaching. Reflective Practice, 7, 233–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Williams, B. (2002). Truth and truthfulness: An essay in genealogy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  168. Williams, J. (2013). Consuming higher education: Why learning can’t be bought. London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
  169. Xu, S., & Connelly, F. M. (2009). Narrative inquiry for teacher education and development: Focus on English as a foreign language in China. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 219–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Young, M. F. D., & Muller, J. (2014). From the sociology of professions to the sociology of professional knowledge. In M. F. D. Young & J. Muller (Eds.), Knowledge, expertise and the professions. London, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  171. Zeichner, K. (1994). Research on teacher thinking and different views of reflective practice in teaching and teacher education. In G. Handal, S. Vaage, & I. Carlgren (Eds.), Teachers’ minds and actions: Research on teachers’ thinking and practice. London, England: The Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  172. Zeichner, K. (1996). Teachers as reflective practitioners and the democratization of school reform. In K. Zeichner, S. Melnick, & M. L. Gomez (Eds.), Currents of reform in preservice teacher education. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  173. Zeichner, K., & Liston, D. P. (1996). Reflective Teaching: An Introduction. Matwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alex Ding
    • 1
  • Ian Bruce
    • 2
  1. 1.University of LeedsLeedsUK
  2. 2.University of WaikatoHamiltonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations