Mitral Regurgitation: Diagnosis and Timing of Intervention

  • Marta Chiarandà
  • Sarah Mangiafico
  • Salvatore Scandura


The clinical manifestations of mitral regurgitation (MR) are conditioned by the magnitude and rapidity of onset and the ability of the chambers of the heart to adapt from a hemodynamic and neuroendocrine perspective. Patients with MR are often asymptomatic despite a severe degree of valve regurgitation. The major symptom is dyspnea, at first on exertion and then at rest, accompanied by peripheral edemas, marked asthenia, and palpitations. The most serious clinical manifestation is acute pulmonary edema [1].


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Chiarandà
    • 1
  • Sarah Mangiafico
    • 1
  • Salvatore Scandura
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of CardiologyFerrarotto Hospital, University of CataniaCataniaItaly

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