Mitral Regurgitation: Epidemiology, Etiology and Physiopathology

  • Salvatore ScanduraEmail author
  • Sarah Mangiafico
  • Sandra Giaquinta


In industrialized countries, mitral regurgitation (MR) ranks second among valve diseases, after aortic stenosis, and affects 9.3% of the population over 75 years of age. Inadequate systolic coaptation of the mitral valve leaflets, in addition to changes in the pressure gradient between the atrium and left ventricle, is the cause of mitral valve regurgitation. MR, however, is the result of various etiological causes and regurgitation mechanisms. Therefore, it is possible to classify MR based on the etiological causes (acute and chronic), regurgitation mechanisms (according to Carpentier’s functional classification), and pathophysiology (degenerative/organic or functional causes).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salvatore Scandura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sarah Mangiafico
    • 1
  • Sandra Giaquinta
    • 1
  1. 1.Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular DepartmentFerrarotto HospitalCataniaItaly

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