Aortic regurgitation (AR) is characterized by blood regurgitation from the aorta into the left ventricle (LV) due to the failure of the valve leaflets to adequately close during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. AR is usually an acquired valve disease, while the congenital etiologies, mainly bicuspid morphology, are rarer. Acquired AR can be caused by primary disease of the aortic valve leaflets and/or abnormalities of the aortic root. The alterations of the aortic valve leaflets are more often of a calcific-degenerative nature, or a result of acute or chronic endocarditic valve processes, or due to myxomatous degeneration. There has been a progressive reduction in primary valve disease of rheumatic origin, which is now a rare event. Systemic arterial hypertension, aortic dissection, and connectivopathies such as Marfan’s syndrome, Reiter’s syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, or rheumatoid arthritis alter the aortic root, leading to dilation and subsequent valve closure dysfunction . Pure AR is far less common than aortic stenosis, affecting about 13% of patients with isolated, native left-sided valvular heart disease .
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