Routes of Infection

  • Marta Díaz-MenéndezEmail author
  • Clara Crespillo-Andújar
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Immunology book series (BRIEFSIMMUN)


Initial research on Zika disease defined infected mosquito bite as the only possible route of infection. Subsequent studies, most of which developed during the current epidemic, have opened the range to other mechanisms of transmission: vertical, sexual, laboratory exposition, through blood transfusion products or after monkey bite. Currently, other probable routes that need more research to be settled (breast milk, saliva or organ transplantation) have already been reported as potentially infective, but they have not been definitely documented. International heath authorities have published specific guidelines with recommendations to prevent or minimize transmission through these routes. Table 5.1 highlights the most important items in each route and summarizes the scientific evidence, with a specific link to the chapter in which more detailed information is provided.


Sexual Transmitted Infection Dengue Virus Sexual Transmission ZIKV Infection Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Díaz-Menéndez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Clara Crespillo-Andújar
    • 1
  1. 1.Tropical Medicine DepartmentHospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos IIIMadridSpain

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