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The Vector

  • Marta Díaz-MenéndezEmail author
  • Clara Crespillo-Andújar
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Immunology book series (BRIEFSIMMUN)

Abstract

Even if transmission has been described by other Aedes subgenous, the principal viral ZIKV vectors are Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, which belong to the Culicidae subfamily. The most important morphological characteristics of these mosquitoes are the black and white pattern due to the presence of white/silver scale patches against a black background on the legs and other parts of the body. For those characteristics they are commonly known as ‘Tiger Mosquito’. Both mosquitoes have adapted to survive in a variety of environments, and they prefer to live close to human settlements. Ae. aegypti is reported to have been ship-mediated introduced in the Mediterranean area from Africa during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but its presence was eradicated possibly by elimination programmes. It is currently present in tropical and subtropical areas and it has been the main vector of American ZIKV outbreak. Ae. albopictus was first described in Asia and spread by commercial trades throughout tropical and subtropical areas. Unlike Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus can adapt to lower temperatures, due to some characteristics like embryonic diapause and overwinter in the egg stage that make it to be currently present in Europe, Middle East and North America. In order to avoid possible future ZIKV outbreak in this geographical areas, the information of people at risk, enhance surveillance, mosquitoes control and the early detection of possible autochthonous cases are a priority.

Keywords

Mosquito Species Rift Valley Fever Rift Valley Fever Virus Yellow Fever Virus Elimination Programme 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Díaz-Menéndez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Clara Crespillo-Andújar
    • 1
  1. 1.Tropical Medicine DepartmentHospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos IIIMadridSpain

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