Advertisement

Dietary Patterns and Whole Plant Foods in Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Management

  • Mark L. Dreher
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

A healthy lifestyle including habitual intake of a high quality dietary pattern, regular physical activity, and weight control are key components of type 2 diabetes (diabetes) prevention and management. Prospective cohort studies show that high quality dietary patterns including the Alternative Healthy Eating Index score have a significant inverse association with diabetes risk, and Western dietary patterns have a positive association with risk. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with a 19–23% reduced risk of developing diabetes, while the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) show that the MedDiet can reduce risk of diabetes by 30% and can reduce glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels by 0.30–0.47% in people with diabetes. Other healthy dietary patterns which are effective in reducing diabetes risk and in management of diabetics’ health are the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), vegan and the healthy Nordic food index diets. Prospective cohort studies show that whole (minimally processed) plant foods including whole-grains, fruits, vegetables, dietary pulses, and nuts and flaxseed are significantly associated with lower risk of diabetes. For whole grains, 3 servings/day reduced diabetes risk by 23% and of the whole-grains oats and oat bran are the most effective in managing glycemic control in people with diabetes. For fruits and vegetables, higher intake of fruits, especially berries, and green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, non-starchy root and cruciferous vegetables are particularly effective in lowering diabetes risk. Three weekly servings of French fries significantly increase diabetes risk by 41% compared to only 5% for other forms of potatoes (baked, boiled or mashed). Higher intake of sugar sweetened fruit juice is significantly associated with increased diabetes risk by 28%, while higher intake of 100% fruit juice is not associated with diabetes risk. Higher intake of dietary pulses, peanuts, tree nuts and flaxseed are also associated with lower diabetes risk. Healthy dietary patterns and specific whole foods beneficially affect glycemic and cardiometabolic risk factors, which are important for preventing and managing diabetes, by helping to control body weight, visceral fat, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health, lipoprotein concentrations, and blood pressure.

Keywords

Type 2 diabetes Dietary quality Prediabetes Dietary patterns Mediterranean diet DASH diet Vegan diet Vegetarian diet Nordic food index Western diet Whole-grains Fruits Vegetables Legumes Nuts 

References

  1. 1.
    Asif M. The prevention and control of type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern. J Educ Health Promot. 2014;3:1.  https://doi.org/10.4103/2277-9531.127541. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zimmer PZ. Diabetes and its driver: the largest epidemic in human history? Clin Diabetes Endrocrinology. 2017;3:1.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zucker I, Shohat T, Dankner R, Chodick G. New onset in adulthood is associated with substantial risk for mortality at all ages: a population based historical cohort study with a decade-long follow-up. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2017;16:105.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ley SH, Hamdy O, Mahan V, Hu FB. Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: dietary components and nutritional strategies. Lancet. 2014;383:1999–2007.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tabák AG, Herder C, Rathmann W, et al. Prediabetes: a high-risk state for developing diabetes. Lancet. 2012;379(9833):2279–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Salas-Salvado J, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Bullo M, Ros E. The role of diet in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21:32–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jannasch F, Kroger J, Schulze MB. Dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Nutr. 2017;147:1174–82.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tuomilehto J, Linstrom J, Eriksson JG, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1343–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nield L, Summerbell CD, Hooper L, et al. Dietary advice for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(3). Art. No.: CD005102.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005102.pub2.
  10. 10.
    Micha R, Pehalvo JL, Cudhea F, et al. Association between dietary factors and mortality from heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes in the United States. JAMA. 2017;317(9):912–24.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.0947. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC). Scientific report. Advisory report to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture. Part D. Chapter 2: Dietary patterns, foods and nutrients and health outcomes. 2015;1–35.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, et al. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(suppl 1):S120–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ley SH, Korat A, Sun Q, et al. Contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies to the uncovering risk factors for type 2 diabetes: diet, Lifestyle, biomarkers, and genetics. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(9):1624–30.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303314.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maghsoudi Z, Azadbakht L. How dietary patterns could have a role in prevention, progression, or management of diabetes mellitus? Review on the current evidence. J Res Med Sci. 2012;17(7):694–709.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G, Lampousi A-M, et al. Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017;32(5):363–75.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-0246-y. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ley SH, Pan A, Li Y, et al. Changes in overall diet quality and subsequent type 2 diabetes risk: three US prospective cohorts. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:2011–8.  https://doi.org/10.2337/dc16-0574.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Satija A, Bhupathiraju SN, Rimm EB, et al. Plant-based dietary patterns and incidence of type 2 diabetes in US men and women: results from three prospective cohort studies. PLoS Med. 2016;13(6):e1002039.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002039.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maghsoudi Z, Ghiasvand R, Salehi-Abargouei A. Empirically derived dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis on prospective observational studies. Public Health Nutr. 2015;19(2):230–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McEvoy CT, Cardwell CR, Woodside JV, et al. Posteriori dietary patterns are related to risk of type 2 diabetes: findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114:1759–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alhazmi A, Stojanovski E, McEvoy M, Garg ML. The association between dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Human Nutr Dietetics. 2014;27:251–60.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Exposito K, Chiodini P, Maiorino MI, et al. Which diet for the prevention of type 2 diabetes? A meta-analysis of prospective studies. Endocrine. 2014;47(1):107–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Esposito K, Kastorini CM, Panagiotakos DB, Giugliano D. Prevention of type 2 diabetes by dietary patterns: a systematic review of prospective studies and meta-analysis. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2010;8(6):471–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Doostvandi T, Bahadoran Z, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, et al. Food intake patterns are associated with the risk of impaired glucose and insulin homeostasis: a prospective approach in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Public Health Nutr. 2016;19(13):2467–74.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980016000616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cespedes FM, Hu FB, Tinker L, et al. Multiple healthful dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes in the Women’s Health Initiative. Am J Epidemiol. 2016;183(7):622–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hong X, Xu F, Wang Z, et al. Dietary patterns and the incidence of hyperglyacemia in China. Public Health Nutr. 2015;19(1):131–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kröger J, Schulze MB, Romaguera D, et al. Adherence to predefined dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations: EPIC-InterAct Study. Diabetologia. 2014;57:321–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alhazmi A, Stojanovski E, McEvoy M, et al. Diet quality score is a predictor of type 2 diabetes risk in women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Br J Nutr. 2014; 112:945–51.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gopinath B, Rochtchina E, Flood VM, Mitchell P. Diet quality is prospectively associated with incident impaired fasting glucose in older adults. Diabet Med. 2013;30(5):557–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    de Koning L, Chiuve SE, Fung TT, et al. Diet-quality scores and the risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:1150–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fung TT, McCullough M, van Dam RM, Hu FB. A prospective study of overall diet quality and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(7):1753–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim Y, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Consumption of red and processed meat and refined grains for 4 weeks decreases insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant adults: a randomized crossover study. Metabolism. 2017;68:173–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2016.12.011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Esposito K, Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, et al. A journey into a Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analyses. BMJ Open. 2015;5(8):e008222.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008222.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Huo R, Du T, Xu Y, et al. Effects of Mediterranean-style diet on glycemic control, weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes individuals: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015;69:1200–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schwingshackl L, Missbach B, König J, Hoffmann G. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(7):1292–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Koloverou E, Esposito K, Giugliano D, Panagiotakos D. The effect of Mediterranean diet on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of 10 prospective studies and 136,846 participants. Metabolism. 2014;63:903–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schwingshacki L, Hoffmann G. Mediterranean dietary pattern, inflammation and endothelial function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;24(9):923–39.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Carter P, Achana F, Troughton J, et al. A Mediterranean diet improves HbA1c but not fasting blood glucose compared to alternative dietary strategies: a network meta-analysis. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014;27:280–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ajala O, English P, Pinkney J. Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:505–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Salas-Salvado J, Bullo M, Estruch R, et al. Prevention of diabetes with Mediterranean diets. Ann Inter Med. 2014;160(1):1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Martínez-González MA, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Nunez-Cordoba JM, et al. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of developing diabetes: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2008;336:1348–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Maiorino ML, Bellastella G, Petrizzo M, et al. Mediterranean diet cools down the inflammatory milieu in type 2 diabetes: the MEDITA randomized controlled trial. Endocrine. 2016;54(3):634–41.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-016-0881-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Esposito K, Maiorino MI, Petrizzo M, et al. The effects of a Mediterranean diet on the need for diabetes drugs and remission of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: follow-up of a randomized trial. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:1824–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Snorgaard O, Poulsen GM, Andersen HK, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2017;5:e000354.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000354.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shirani F, Salehi-Abargouei A, Azadbakht L. Effects of DASH diet on some risk for developing type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis on controlled clinical trials. Nutrition. 2013;29(7):939–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yokoyama Y, Barnard ND, Levin SM, Watanabe M. Vegetarian diets and glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2014;4(5):373–82.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lee Y-M, Kim S-A, Lee I-K, et al. Effect of a brown rice based vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes: a 12-week randomized clinical trial. PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0155918.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155918.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJA, et al. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(suppl):1S–9S.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, et al. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1777–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Barnard ND, Scialli AR, Turner-McGrievy G, et al. The effects of a low-fat, plant-based dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Am J Med. 2005;118:991–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tonstad S, Butler T, Yan R, Fraser GE. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:791–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lacoppidan SA, Kyrø C, Loft S, et al. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index is associated with a lower risk of type-2 diabetes-The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study. Forum Nutr. 2015;7:8633–44.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Scientific report. Advisory report to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture. Part D. Chapter 1: Food and nutrient intakes, and health: current status and trends. 2015;1–78.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    McGill CR, Fulgoni VL III, Devareddy L. Ten-year trends in fiber and whole grain intakes and food sources for the United States population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010. Forum Nutr. 2015;7:1119–30.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Slavin JL, Lloyd B. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Adv Nutr. 2012;3:506–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    WHO/FAO. Diet, nutrition and prevention of chronic disease: report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 2003/2004. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_916.pdf. Accessed 17 Feb 2015.
  56. 56.
    World Health Association. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health—promoting fruit and vegetable consumption around the world. 2013. http://who.int/dietphysical%20activity/fruit/en/. Accessed 17 Feb 2015.
  57. 57.
    Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Shi P, et al. Global, regional and national consumption of major food groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys worldwide. BMJ Open. 2015;5(9):e008705.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008705.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rebello CJ, Greenway FL, Finley JW. A review of the nutritional value of legumes and their effects on obesity and its related co-morbidities. Obes Rev. 2014;15:392–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ros E, Hu FB. Consumption of plant seeds and cardiovascular health epidemiological and clinical trial evidence. Circulation. 2013;128:553–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Messina V. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(suppl):437S–42S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mattes RD, Kris-Etherton PM, Foster GD. Impact of peanuts and tree nuts on body weight and healthy weight loss in adults. J Nutr. 2008;138(suppl):1741S–5S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Aune D, Keum N, Giovannucci E, et al. Whole grain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ. 2016;353:i2716.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i2716.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chanson-Rolle A, Meynier A, Aubin F, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of human studies to support a quantitative recommendation for whole grain intake in relation to type 2 diabetes. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0131377.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131377.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ye EQ, Chacko SA, Chou EL, et al. Greater whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain. J Nutr. 2012;142:1306–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Parker ED, Liu S, Van Horn L, et al. The association of whole grain consumption with incident type 2 diabetes: The Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Ann Epidemiol. 2013;23(6):321–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wirstrom T, Hilding A, Gu HF, et al. Consumption of whole grain reduces risk of deteriorating glucose tolerance, including progression to prediabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:179–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kochar J, Djousse L, Gaziano JM. Breakfast cereals and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Physicians’ Health Study I. Obesity. 2007;15(12):3039–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sun Q, Spiegelman D, van Dam RM, et al. White rice, brown rice, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(11):961–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Weickert MO, Roden M, Isken F, et al. Effects of supplemented isoenergetic diets differing in cereal fiber and protein content on insulin sensitivity in overweight humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:459–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pereira MA, Jacobs DR, Pins JJ, et al. Effect of whole grains on insulin sensitivity in overweight hyperinsulinemic adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:848–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Weickert MO, Mohlig M, Schofl C, et al. Cereal fiber improves whole-body insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese women. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:775–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Robertson MD, Bickerton AS, Dennis AL, et al. Insulin-sensitizing effects of dietary resistant starch and effects on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:559–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Landberg R, Andersson SO, Zhang JX, et al. Rye whole grain and bran intake compared with refined wheat decreases urinary C peptide, plasma insulin, and prostate specific antigen in men with prostate cancer. J Nutr. 2010;140:2180–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Giacco R, Lappi J, Costabile G, et al. Effects of rye and whole wheat versus refined cereal foods on metabolic risk factors: a randomised controlled two-centre intervention study. Clin Nutr. 2013;32:941–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Juntunen KS, Laaksonen DE, Poutanen KS, et al. High fiber rye bread and insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:385–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Giacco R, Clemente G, Cipriano D, et al. Effects of the regular consumption of wholemeal wheat foods on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy people. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;20:186–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Andersson A, Tengblad S, Karlström B, et al. Whole grain foods do not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in healthy, moderately overweight subjects. J Nutr. 2007;137:1401–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Brownlee IA, Moore C, Chatfield M, et al. Markers of cardiovascular risk are not changed by increased whole grain intake: the WHOLE heart study, a randomised, controlled dietary intervention. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:125–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Shen XL, Zhao T, Zhou Y, et al. Effect of oat β-glucan intake on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity of diabetic patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Forum Nutr. 2016;8:39.  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010039.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    He LX, Zhao J, Huang YS, Li Y. The difference between oats and beta-glucan extract intake in the management of HbA1c, fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Food Funct. 2016;7(3):1413–28.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c5fo1364. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Thies F, Masson LF, Boffetta P, Kris-Etherton P. Oats and CVD risk markers: a systematic literature review. Br J Nutr. 2014;112:S19–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bao L, Cai X, Xu M, Li Y. Effect of oat intake on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2014;112:457–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wang P-Y, Fang J-C, Gao Z-H, et al. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Diabetes Investig. 2016;7:56–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Borch D, Juul-Hindsgaul N, Veller M, et al. Potatoes and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy adults: a systematic review of clinical intervention and observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104:489–98.  https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.132332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Li S, Miao S, Huang Y, et al. Fruit intake decreases risk of incident type 2 diabetes: an updated meta-analysis. Endocrine. 2015;48(2):454–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Li M, Fan Y, Zhang X, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ Open. 2014;4:10.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005497.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Cooper AJ, Forouhi NG, Ye Z, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(10):1082–92.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Carter P, Gray LJ, Troughton J, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c4229.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c4229.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Xi B, Li S, Liu Z, et al. Intake of fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 9(3):e93471.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093471.
  90. 90.
    Mamluk L, O’Doherty MG, Orfanos P, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of incident of type 2 diabetes: results from the consortium on health and ageing network of cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES). Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017;71(1):83–91.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn. 2016.143. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mursu J, Virtanen JK, Tuomainen T-P, et al. Intake of fruit, berries, and vegetables and risk of type 2 diabetes in Finnish men: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99:328–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Muraki I, Imamura F, Manson JE, et al. Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies. BMJ. 2013;347:f5001.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f5001.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Cooper AJ, Sharp SJ, Lentjes MAH, et al. prospective study of the association between quantity and variety of fruit and vegetable intake and incident type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1293–300.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Muraki I, Rimm EB, Willett WC, et al. Potato consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective cohort studies. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:376–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Halton TL, Willett WC, Liu S, et al. Potato and french fry consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:284–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wallace IR, McEvoy CT, Hunter SJ, et al. Dose-response effect of fruit and vegetables on insulin resistance in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease. A randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(12):3888–96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Taniguchi A, Yamanaka-Okumura H, Nishida Y, et al. Natto and viscous vegetables in a Japanese style meal suppress postrandial glucose and insulin responses. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(4):663–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Flood A, Mai V, Pfeiffer R, et al. The effect of high-fruit and -vegetable, high-fiber, low fat dietary intervention on serum concentrations of insulin, glucose, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62(2):186–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Anderson JW, Waters AR. Raisin consumption by humans: effects on glycemia and insulinemia and cardiovascular risk factors. J Food Sci. 2013;78(S1):A11–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Anderson JW, Weiter KM, Christian AL, et al. Raisins compared with other snack effects on glycemia and blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial. Postgrad Med. 2014;126(1):37–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Esfahani A, Lam J, Kendal CWC. Acute effects of raisin consumption on glucose and insulin response in healthy individuals. J Nutr Sci. 2014;3(c1).  https://doi.org/10.1017/jns.2013.33.
  102. 102.
    Becerra-Tomas N, Diaz-Lopez A, Rosique-Esteban N, et al. Legume consumption is inversely associated wirh type 2 diabetes incidence in adults: a prospective assessment from the PREDIMED study. Clin Nutr. 2017; doi: 1016/j.clnu.2017.03.015.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Agrawal S, Ebrahim S. Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):706.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-706.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA. 2002;288(20):2554–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mueller NT, Odegaard AO, Gross MD, et al. Soy intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Singaporeans: soy intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51(8):1033–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ding M, Pan A, Manson JE, et al. Consumption of soy foods and isoflavones and risk of type 2 diabetes: a pooled analysis of three US cohorts. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70(12):1381.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016. 117. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nanri A, Mizoue T, Takahashi Y, et al. Soy product and isoflavone intakes are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in overweight Japanese women. J Nutr. 2010;140:580–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Morimoto Y, Steinbrecher A, Kolonel LN, et al. Soy consumption is protective against diabetes in Hawaii: The Multiethnic Cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(2):279–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sievenpiper JL, Kendall CWC, Esfahani A, et al. Effect of non-oil-seed pulses on glycaemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled experimental trials in people with and without diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1479–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Pittaway JK, Robertson IK, Ball MJ. Chickpeas may influence fatty acid and fiber intake in an ad libitum diet, leading to small improvements in serum lipid profile and glycemic control. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108:1009–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Marinangeli CPF, Jones PJH. Whole and fractionated yellow pea flours reduce fasting insulin and insulin resistance in hypercholesterolaemic and overweight human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:110–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Afshin A, Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Mozaffarian D. Consumption of nuts and legumes and risk of incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100:278–88.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Pan A, Sun Q, Mason JE, et al. Walnut consumption is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women. J Nutr. 2013;143:512–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bao Y, Han J, Hu FB, et al. Association of nut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2001–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Njike VY, Ayettey R, Petraro P, et al. Walnut ingestion in adults at risk for diabetes: effects on body composition, diet quality, and cardiac risk measures. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2015;3:e000115.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2015-000115.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hernandez-Alonso P, Salas-Salvado J, Baldrich-Mora M, et al. Beneficial effects of pistachio consumption on glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation, and related metabolic risk markers: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(11):3098–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Wien M, Bleich D, Raghuwanshi M, et al. Almond consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with prediabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010;29(3):189–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Casas-Agustench P, Lopez-Uriarte P, Bullo M, et al. Effects of one serving of mixed nuts on serum lipids, insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21(2):126–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Rhee Y, Brunt A. Flaxseed supplementation improved insulin resistance in obese glucose intolerant people: a randomized crossover design. Nutr J. 2011;10(1):44.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-10-44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hutchins AM, Brown BD, Cunnane SC, et al. Daily flaxseed consumption improves glycemic control in obese men and women with pre-diabetes: a randomized study. Nutr Res. 2013;33(5):367–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    McMacken M, Shah S. A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Geriatric Cardio. 2017;14:342–54.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lopez-Jaramillo P. The role of adiponectin in cardiometabolic diseases: effects of nutritional interventions. J Nutr. 2016;146(Suppl):422S–6S.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fisman EZ, Tenenbaum A. Adiponectin: a manifold therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary disease? Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2014;13(1):103.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2840-13-103.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    McGeoghegan L, Muirhead CR, Almoosawi S. Association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes in British adults: results from the national diet and nutrition survey rolling programme years 1-4. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015;67(5):553–61.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2016.1179268. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Wood AD, Strachan AA, Thies F, et al. Patterns of dietary intake and serum carotenoid and tocopherol status are associated with biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk. Br J Nutr. 2014;112:1341–52.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514001962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Medina-Remón A, Rosa Casas R, Anna Tressserra-Rimbau A, et al. Polyphenol intake from a Mediterranean diet decreases inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis: a substudy of the PREDIMED trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2017;83:114–28.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lin D, Xiao M, Zhan J, et al. An overview of plant phenolic compounds and their importance in human nutrition and management of type 2 diabetes. Molecules. 2016;21:1374.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21101374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Jiao J, Xu J-Y, Zhang W, et al. Effect of dietary fiber on circulating C-reactive protein in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015;66(1):114–9.  https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2014.959898. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Bertoia ML, Rimm EB, Mukamal KJ, et al. Dietary flavonoid intake and weight maintenance: three prospective cohorts of 124,086 US men and women followed for up to 24 years. BMJ. 2016;352:i17.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Dahl WJ, Stewart ML. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: health implications of dietary fiber. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115:1861–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sylvetsky AC, Edelstein SL, Walford G, et al. A high-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet results in weight loss among adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. J Nutr. 2017; doi:  10.3945/ jn.117.252395.
  132. 132.
    de Carvalho CM, de Paula TP, Viana LV, et al. Plasma glucose and insulin responses after consumption of breakfasts with different sources of soluble fiber in type 2 diabetes patients: a randomized crossover clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017; doi:  10.3945/ajcn.117.157263.
  133. 133.
    Rahman S, Zhao A, Xiao D, et al. A randomized, controlled trial evaluating polydextrose as a fiber in a wet and dry matrix on glycemic control. J Food Sci. 2017; doi:  10.1111/1750-3841.13855.
  134. 134.
    Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, McKeown-Eyssen G, et al. Effect of a low-glycemic index or a high-cereal fiber diet on type 2 diabetes a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008;300(23):2742–53.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kondo K, Morino K, Nishio Y, et al. Fiber-rich diet with brown rice improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial. PLOS ONE. 2017;12(6):e0179869Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark L. Dreher
    • 1
  1. 1.Nutrition Science Solutions LLCWimberleyUSA

Personalised recommendations