Dietary Patterns and Fiber in Body Weight and Composition Regulation

  • Mark L. Dreher
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

The human gastrointestinal and energy metabolism regulatory systems evolved with pre-agricultural high fiber diets (>50 g fiber/day). Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) show that high adherence to healthy fiber-rich dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean (MedDiet), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), New Nordic, and vegetarian diets may at a minimum help to prevent weight gain and can support weight loss and lower waist circumference compared to low-fat or Western diets in overweight or obese individuals. Mechanisms associated with healthy fiber-rich dietary pattern effects on managing body weight and central obesity include: (1) reducing dietary energy density directly or displacing higher energy foods associated with the Western diet pattern; (2) lowering available metabolizable energy; and (3) increasing postprandial satiety by affecting both the upper digestive tract and colonic microbiota. Fiber intake is inversely associated with obesity risk and populations with higher fiber diets tend to be leaner than those with low fiber diets. Prospective cohort studies suggest that increased total fiber intake by ≥12 g/day to a total daily fiber intake of >25 g, especially as a replacement for refined low fiber food, can prevent weight gain by 3.5–5.5 kg each decade. RCTs show that adequate fiber intake ≥28 g fiber/day from fiber-rich diets can reduce body weight and waist circumference compared to low fiber Western diets (≤ 20 g fiber/day). Fiber-rich diets are generally more effective at promoting weight loss than fiber supplements.

Keywords

Dietary patterns Mediterranean diet DASH diet New Nordic diet Vegetarian diet Western diet Dietary fiber Weight loss Energy density Obesity Overweight Body weight Waist circumference Body mass index Visceral fat 

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. Geneva. 2014. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311en/. Accessed 18 Jan 2015.
  2. 2.
    Swinburn BA, Sacks G, Hall KD, et al. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. Lancet. 2011;378:804–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moehlecke M, Canani LH, Lucas Oliveira L, et al. Determinants of body weight regulation in humans. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2016;60(2):152–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Overweight and obesity: causes and consequences. 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/adult/causes/index.html. Accessed 21 Feb 2015.
  5. 5.
    Hill JO. Can a small-changes approach help address the obesity epidemic? A report of the Joint Task Force of the American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:477–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhai F, Wang H, Wang Z, et al. Closing the energy gap to prevent weight gain in China. Obes Rev. 2008;9(Suppl 1):107–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Low energy dense foods and weight management: cutting calories while controlling hunger. Research to Practice Series, No 5. 2015. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/nutrition/pdf/r2p_energy_density.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb.
  8. 8.
    Davis JN, Hodges VA, Gillham MB. Normal-weight adults consume more fiber and fruit than their age and height matched overweight/obese counterparts. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106:835–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, et al. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. N Engl J Med. 2011;363:2392–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rolls BJ. What is the role of portion in weight management? Int J Obes. 2014;38:S1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vernarelli JA, Mitchell DC, Rolls BJ, Hartman TJ. Dietary energy density is associated with obesity and other biomarkers of chronic disease in US adults. Eur J Nutr. 2015;54(1):59–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Karl JP, Roberts SB. Energy density, energy intake and body weight regulations in adults. Adv Nutr. 2014;5:835–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Raynor HA, Jeffery RW, Phelan S, et al. Amount of food group variety consumed in the diet and long-term weight loss maintenance. Obes Res. 2005;13(5):883–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Scientific Report of the 2015 Advisory Guidelines Advisory Report to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture. Part D. Chapter 2: Dietary patterns, foods and nutrients, and health outcomes. 2015;1–33.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jessri M, Wolfinger RD, Lou NY, L’Abbe MR. Identification of dietary patterns associated with obesity in a nationally respresentative survey of Canadian adults: application of a priori, hybrid, and simplified pattern techniques. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105:669–84.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Verheggen RJ, Maessen MF, Green DJ, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on bodyweight and visceral adipose tissue. Obes Rev. 2016;17(8):664–90. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12406.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    de Mutsert R, Sun Q, Willett WC, et al. Overweight in early adulthood, adult weight change, and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers in men: a cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179:1353–65.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Sullivan L, et al. Overweight and obesity as determinants of cardiovascular risk: the Framingham experience. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:1867–72.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang YC, McPherson K, Marsh T, et al. Health and economic burden of projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK. Lancet. 2011;378:815–25.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wing RR, Phelan S. Long-term weight loss maintenance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(Suppl):222S–5S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Raynor HA, Van Walleghen EL, Bachman JL. Dietary energy density and successful weight loss maintenance. Eat Behav. 2011;12(2):119–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    MacLean PS, Higgins JA, Giles ED, et al. The role for adipose tissue in weight regain after weight loss. Obes Rev. 2015;16(Suppl.1):45–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mariman ECM. An adipobiological model for weight regain after weight loss. Adipobiology. 2011;3:7–13.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rezagholizadeh F, Djafarian K, Khosravis S, Shab-Bidar S. A posteriori: healthy dietary patterns may decrease the risk of central obesity: findings froma systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Res. 2017;41:1-13.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ma Y, Olendzki BC, Wang J, et al. Single-component versus multi-component dietary goals for the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162:248–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Asghari G, Mirmiran P, Yuzbashian E, Azizi F. A systematic review of diet quality indices in relation to obesity. Br J Nutr. 2017;117(8):1055–65.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517000915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shah RV, Murthy VL, Allison JP, et al. Diet and adipose tissue distributions: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2016;26:185–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hu T, Jacobs DR, Larson NI, et al. Higher diet quality in adolescence and dietary improvements are related to less weight gain during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. J Pediatr. 2016;178:188–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Feliciano CEM, Tinker L, Manson JE, et al. Change in dietary patterns and change in waist circumference and DXA trunk fat among postmenopausal women. Obesity. 2016;24:2176–84.  https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fung TT, Pan A, Hou T, et al. Long-term change in diet quality is associated with body weight change in men and women. J Nutr. 2015;145(8):1850–6.  https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.208785.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lassale C, Fezeu L, Andreeva VA, et al. Association between dietary scores and 13-year weight change and obesity risk in a French prospective cohort. Int J Obes. 2012;36(11):1455–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wolongevicz DM, Zhu L, Pencina MJ, et al. Diet quality and obesity in women: the Framingham Nutrition Studies. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(8):1223–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Esmaillzadeh A, Azadbakht L. Major dietary patterns in relation to general obesity and central adiposity among Iranian women. J Nutr. 2008;138:358–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schulz M, Nothlings U, Hoffmann K, et al. Identification of a food pattern characterized by high-fiber and low-fat food choices associated with low prospective weight change in the EPIC-Potsdam cohort. J Nutr. 2005;135:1183–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Newby PK, Muller D, Hallfrisch J, et al. Dietary patterns and changes in body mass index and waist circumference in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:1417–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Li Y, Roswall N, Ström P, et al. Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and long-term changes in body weight and waist circumference: results from a large cohort study. Br J Nutr. 2015;114:2093–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Funtikova AN, Benıtez-Arciniega AA, Gomez SF, et al. Mediterranean diet impact on changes in abdominal fat and 10-year incidence of abdominal obesity in a Spanish population. Br J Nutr. 2014;111:1481–7.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114513003966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    May AM, Romaguera D, Travier N, et al. Combined impact of lifestyle factors on prospective change in body weight and waist circumference in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA Study. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e50712.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050712.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Beunza JJ, Toledo E, Hu FB, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet, long-term weight change, and incident overweight or obesity: The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1484–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Romaguera D, Norat T, Vergnaud A-C, et al. Mediterranean dietary patterns and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA project. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:912–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sanchez-Villegas A, Bes-Rastrollo M, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Serra-Majem L. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and weight gain in a follow-up study: the SUN cohort. Int J Obes. 2006;30:350–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mendez MA, Popkin BM, Jakszyn P, et al. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced 3-year incidence of obesity. J Nutr. 2006;136:2934–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Barak F, Falahi E, Keshteli AH, et al. Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet in relation to obesity among Iranian female nurses. Public Health Nutr. 2014;18(4):705–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Berz JPB, Singer MR, Guo X, et al. Use of a DASH food group score to predict excess weight gain in adolescent girls in the National Growth and Health Study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(6):540–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tonstad S, Butler T, Yan R, Fraser GE. Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:791–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Berkow SE, Barnard N. Vegetarian diets and weight status. Nutr Rev. 2006;64(4):175–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mancini JG, Filion KB, Atallah R, Eisenberg MJ. Systematic review of the Mediterranean diet for long-term weight loss. Am J Med. 2016;129:407–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Huo R, Du T, Xu Y, et al. Effects of Mediterranean-style diet on glycemic control, weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes individuals: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;4(11):e005497.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005497.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Esposito K, Kastorini CM, Panagiotakos DB, Giugliano D. Mediterranean diet and weight loss diet: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2011;9(1):1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kastorini C-M, Milionis HJ, Esposito K, et al. The effect of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome and its components: a meta-analysis of 50 studies and 534,906 individuals. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57(11):1299–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Estruch R, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Corella D, et al. Effect of a high-fat Mediterranean diet on bodyweight and waist circumference: a prespecified secondary outcomes analysis of the PREDIMED randomised controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2016;4:666–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(16)30085-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Alvarez-Perez J, Sanchez-Villegas A, Diaz-Benitez EM, et al. Influence of a Mediterranean dietary pattern on body fat distribution: results of the PREDIMED–Canarias intervention randomized trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 2016;35(6):568–80.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2015.1102102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Damasceno NRT, Sala-Vila A, Cofán M, et al. Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts reduces waist circumference and shifts lipoprotein subfractions to a less atherogenic pattern in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Atherosclerosis. 2013;230:347–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low fat diet. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:229–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Esposito K, Marfella R, Ciotola M, et al. Effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome. a randomized trial. JAMA. 2004;292(12):1440–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Esposito K, Pontillo A, Di Palo C, et al. Effect of weight loss and lifestyle changes on vascular inflammatory markers in obese women: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003;289:1799–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Soltani S, Shirani F, Chitsazi MJ, Salehi-Abargouei A. The effect of dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet on weight and body composition in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Obes Rev. 2016;17:442–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bertz F, Winkvist A, Brekke HK. Sustainable weight loss among overweight and obese lactating women is achieved with an energy-reduced diet in line with dietary recommendations: results from the LEVA randomized controlled trial. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115:78–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bertz F, Brekke HK, Ellegard L, et al. Diet and exercise weight-loss trial in lactating overweight and obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:698–05.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Poulsen SK, Due A, Jordy AB, et al. Health effect of the New Nordic Diet in adults with increased waist circumference: a 6-mo randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99:35–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Huang R-Y, Huang C-C, Hu FB, Chavarro JE. Vegetarian diets and weight reduction: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Gen Intern Med. 2016;31(1):109–16.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-015-3390-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Barnard ND, Levin SM, Yokoyama Y. Systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115(6):954–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Turner-McGrievy GM, Davidson CR, Wingard EE, et al. Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different diets. Nutrition. 2015;31:350–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Eaton SB, Konner MJ, Cordain L. Diet-dependent acid load, Paleolithic nutrition, and evolutionary health promotion. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:295–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jew S, Abumweis SS, Jones PJH. Evolution of the human diet: linking our ancestral diet to modern functional foods as a means of disease prevention. J Med Food. 2009;12(5):925–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chambers ES, Morrison DJ, Frost G. Control of appetite and energy intake by SCFA: what are the potential underlying mechanisms? Proc Nutr Soc. 2015;74(3):328–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Deehan EC, Walter J. The fiber gap and disappearing gut microbiome: implications for human health. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2016;27(5):239–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Scientific Report of the 2015. Advisory Guidelines Advisory Report to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture. Part D. Chapter 1: Food and nutrient intakes, and health: current status and trends. 2015; Figure D1.2:131.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dahl WJ, Stewart ML. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: health implications of dietary fiber. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115:1861–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    González-Rodríguez LG, Sánchez JMP, Aranceta-Bartrina J, et al. Intake and dietary food sources of fibre in Spain: differences with regard to the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity in adults of the ANIBES Study. Forum Nutr. 2017;9:326.  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040326.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Grooms KN, Ommerborn MJ, Quyen D, et al. Dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risk among US adults, NHANES 1999-2010. Am J Med. 2013;126(12):1059–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lairon D. Dietary fiber and control of body weight. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2007;17:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Slavin JL. Dietary fiber and body weight. Nutrition. 2005;21:411–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fogelholm M, Anderssen S, Gunnarsdottir I, Lahti-Koski M. Dietary macronutrients, and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: a systematic literature review. Food Nutr Res. 2012;56:19103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies. Opinion on dietary reference values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. EFSA J. 2010;8(3):1462. 27–37.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rautiainen S, Wang L, Lee I-M, et al. Higher intake of fruit, but not vegetables or fiber, at baseline is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight or obese in middle-aged and older women of normal BMI at baseline. J Nutr. 2015;145:960–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fischer K, Moewes D, Koch M, et al. MRI-determined total volumes of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal and trunk adipose tissue are differentially and sex-dependently associated with patterns of estimated usual nutrient intake in a northern German population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101:794–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lin Y, Huybrechts I, Vandevijvere S, et al. Fibre intake among the Belgian population by sex–age and sex–education groups and its association with BMI and waist circumference. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:1692–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Du H, van der AD, Boshuizen HC, et al. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:329–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Romaguera D, Angquist L, Du H, et al. Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index—a proxy measure of visceral adiposity. PLoS One. 2010;5(7):e11588.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Davis JN, Alexander KE, Ventura EE, et al. Inverse relation between dietary fiber intake and visceral adiposity in overweight Latino youth. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:1160–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tucker LA, Thomas KS. Increasing total fiber intake reduces risk of weight and fat gains in women. J Nutr. 2009;139:576–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Koh-Banerjee P, Franz M, Sampson L, et al. Changes in whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber consumption in relation to 8-yr weight gain among men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:1237–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Koh-Banerjee P, Chu N-F, Spiegelman DM, et al. Prospective study of the association of changes in dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with 9-y gain in waist circumference among 16,587 US men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:719–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Liu S, Willett WC, Manson JE, et al. Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:920–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ludwig DS, Pereira MA, Kroenke CH, et al. Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults. JAMA. 1999;282:1539–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB. Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev. 2001;59(5):129–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Karimi G, Azadbakht L, Haghighatdoost F, Esmaillzadeh A. Low energy density diet, weight loss maintenance, and risk of cardiovascular disease following a recent weight reduction program: a randomized control trial. J Res Med Sci. 2016;21:32.  https://doi.org/10.4103/1735-1995.181992.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Turner TF, Nance LM, Strickland WD, et al. Dietary adherence and satisfaction with a bean-based high-fiber weight loss diet: a pilot study. ISEN Obes. 2013;2013:5.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/915415.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mecca MS, Moreto F, Burini FHP, et al. Ten-week lifestyle changing program reduces several indicators for metabolic syndrome in overweight adults. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2012;4:1–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pal S, Khossousi A, Binns C, et al. The effect of a fibre supplement compared to a healthy diet on body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin and other metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese individuals. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:90–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ferdowsian HR, Barnard ND, Hoover VJ, et al. A multi-component intervention reduces body weight and cardiovascular risk at a GEICO corporate site. Am J Health Promot. 2010;24(6):384–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lindstrom J, Peltonen M, Eriksson JG, et al. High-fibre, low-fat diet predicts long-term weight loss and decreased type 2 diabetes risk: The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Diabetologia. 2006;49:912–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Liber A, Szajewska H. Effects of inulin-type fructans on appetite, energy intake, and body weight in children and adults: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ann Nutr Metab. 2013;63:42–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wanders AJ, Van de Borne JJ, de Graaf C, et al. Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2011;12(9):724–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Pittler MH, Ernst E. Guar gum for body weight reduction meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med. 2001;110:724–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hu X, Gao J, Zhang Q, et al. Soy fiber improves weight loss and lipid profile in overweight and obese adults: a randomized controlled trial. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57:2147–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Salas-Salvado J, Farres X, Luque X, et al. Effect of two doses of a mixture of soluble fibres on body weight and metabolic variables in overweight or obese patients: a randomised trial. Br J Nutr. 2008;99:1380–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Howarth NC, Saltzman E, McCrory MA, et al. Fermentable and non-fermentable fiber supplements did not alter hunger, satiety or body weight in a pilot study of men and women consuming self-selected diets. J Nutr. 2003;133:3141–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pereira MA, Ludwig DS. Dietary fiber and body weight regulation observations and mechanism. Childhood Obes. 2001;48(4):969–79.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Food energy-methods of analysis and conversion factors. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper. 2003;77:59.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Livesey G. Energy values of unavailable carbohydrate and diets: an inquiry and analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51(4):617–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Johns DJ, Lindroos A-K, Jebb SA, et al. Dietary patterns, cardiometabolic risk factors, and the incidence of cardiovascular disease in severe obesity. Obesity. 2015;23(5):1063–70.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Oku T, Nakamura S. Evaluation of the relative available energy of several dietary fiber preparations using breath hydrogen evolution in healthy humans. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2014;60:246–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    McRorie JW. Evidence-based approach to fiber supplements and clinically meaningful health benefits, part 1. What to look for and how to recommend an effective fiber therapy. Nutr Today. 2015;50(2):82–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sanchez D, Miguel M, Aleixandre A. Dietary fiber, gut peptides, and adipocytokines. J Med Food. 2012;15(3):223–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Holt SH, Miller JB. Particle size, satiety and the glycaemic response. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994;48:496–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rebello CJ, Chu Y-F, Johnson WD, et al. The role of meal viscosity and oat β-glucan characteristics in human appetite control: a randomized crossover trial. Nutr J. 2014;13:49.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Vitaglione P, Lumaga RB, Stanzione A, et al. β-Glucan-enriched bread reduces energy intake and modifies plasma ghrelin and peptide YY concentrations in the short term. Appetite. 2009;53:338–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Karhunen LJ, Juvonen KR, Flander SM, et al. A psyllium fiber enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults. J Nutr. 2010;140:737–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bourdon I, Olson B, Backus R, et al. Beans, as a source of dietary fiber, increase cholecystokinin and apolipoprotein B48 response to test meals in men. J Nutr. 2001;131:1485–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Beck EJ, Tosh SM, Batterham MJ, et al. Oat beta-glucan increases postprandial cholecystokinin levels, decreases insulin response and extends subjective satiety in overweight subjects. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009;53:1343–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Martinez-Rodriguez R, Gil A. Nutrient-mediated modulation of incretin gene expression: a systematic review. Nutr Hosp. 2012;27:46–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hussain SS, Bloom SR. The regulation of food intake by the gut-brain axis: implications for obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013;37:625–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hairston KG, Vitolins MZ, Anderson AM, et al. Lifestyle factors and 5-year abdominal fat accumulation in a minority cohort: the IRAS family study. Obesity. 2011;20:421–27.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Aoe S, Ichinose Y, Kohyama N, et al. Effects of high b-glucan barley on visceral fat obesity in Japanese individuals: a randomized, doubleblind study. Nutr. 2017;42:1–6.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Menni C, Jackson MA, Pallister T, et al. Gut microbiome and high fibre intake are related to lower long-term weight gain. Int J Obes. 2017;41:1099–1105.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Holscher HD, Caporaso JG, Hooda S, et al. Fiber supplementation influences phylogenetic structure and functional capacity of the human intestinal microbiome: follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;10(1):55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Nicolucci AC, Hume MP, Martinez I, et al. Prebiotic reduce body fat and alter intestinal microbiota in children who are overweight or with obesity. Gastrenterology. 2017;153:711–22.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Miles CW. The metabolizable energy of diets differing in dietary fat and fiber measured in humans. J Nutr. 1992;122:306–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Miles CW, Kelsay JL, Wong NP. Effect of dietary fiber on the metabolizable energy of human diets. J Nutr. 1988;118:107–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Baer DJ, Rumpler WV, Miles CW, Fahey GC. Dietary fiber decreases the metabolizable energy content and nutrient digestibility of mixed diets fed to humans. J Nutr. 1997;127:579–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Cani PD, Lecourt E, Dewulf EM. Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:1236–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Everard A, Cani PD. Gut microbiota and GLP-1. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2014;15:189–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kaji I, Karaki S, Kuwahara A. Short-chain fatty acid receptor and its contribution to glucagon-like peptide-1 release. Digestion. 2014;89:31–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Tarini J, Wolever TM. The fermentable fibre inulin increases postprandial serum short-chain fatty acids and reduces free-fatty acids and ghrelin in healthy subjects. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2010;35(1):9–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kasubuchi M, Hasegawa S, Hiramatsu T, et al. Dietary gut microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, and host metabolic regulation. Forum Nutr. 2015;7:2839–49.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Conterno L, Fava F, Viola R, Tuohy KM. Obesity and the gut microbiota: does up-regulating colonic fermentation protect against obesity and metabolic disease? Genes Nutr. 2011;6:241–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Chambers ES, Viardot A, Psichas A, et al. Effects of targeted delivery of propionate to the human colon on appetite regulation, body weight maintenance and adiposity in overweight adults. Gut. 2015;64(11):1744–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark L. Dreher
    • 1
  1. 1.Nutrition Science Solutions LLCWimberleyUSA

Personalised recommendations