Fiber-Rich Dietary Patterns and Colonic Microbiota in Aging and Disease

  • Mark L. Dreher
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

Over the course of human evolution, a symbiotic relationship was formed between fiber-rich diets, the colonic microbiota and human health homeostasis. However, the emergence of the Western low fiber diet as a dominant global dietary pattern has disrupted this symbiotic relationship leading to an increased population risk for unhealthy aging, chronic diseases and premature death. Fiber, a critical dietary factor in the maintenance of a healthy microbiota ecosystem, has emerged in recent decades for its importance in promoting colonic health, healthy aging, and reducing the risk of cardiometabolic chronic disease and premature death. Fiber is the primary dietary energy source of the microbiota bacteria and the breakdown products of the resulting fiber fermentation include short chain fatty acids such as butyrate which is the main energy source needed for healthy colonocytes and optimization of colonic barrier defenses. Daily adequate fiber intake supports colonic microbiota health by increasing probiotic and decreasing pathogenic bacteria lowering risk of endotoxemia and reducing colonic pH and bowel transit time, and contributing to greater stool bulk to dilute potential toxic or carcinogenic compounds or metabolites. Fiber-rich healthy dietary patterns support the health of colonic microbiota and their action in protecting the colon from infections such as C difficile, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer; slowing the aging process by decreasing the risk of weight gain and obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome; and reducing the risk of frailty and premature death. In the elderly, high-fiber diets play an important role in establishing a healthy colonic microbiota associated with lower risk of frailty and longer life expectancy due in part to higher butyrate production and lower risk of inflammaging.

Keywords

Dietary fiber Dietary patterns Microbiota Short chain fatty acids Butyrate Symbionts Pathobionts C. difficile Inflammatory bowel disease Colorectal cancer Obesity Type 2 diabetes Metabolic syndrome Aging Frailty Centenarians Mortality 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark L. Dreher
    • 1
  1. 1.Nutrition Science Solutions LLCWimberleyUSA

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