Career Development and Career Design

  • Laura NotaEmail author
  • Lea Ferrari
  • Teresa Maria Sgaramella
  • Salvatore Soresi
Part of the Springer Series on Child and Family Studies book series (SSCFS)


Practices in career development are changing in response to shifting economic conditions, and young people with and without disabilities increasingly require new skills and different competencies to navigate this changing work and life world. Such career and life development efforts need to begin earlier to enable youth to become self-determined and take on present and future challenges that lead to a better quality of life. This view is supported by recent models of positive career development proposed by international organizations that promote integration between individual strengths and contextual resources and, ultimately, a Life Design approach to career and life planning. Recent studies in career development concerning children, preadolescents, and adolescents, both with and without disabilities, are summarized in this chapter. Although studies involving people with disability are limited, research findings from childhood to adolescence provide clear evidence of the importance of shifting to the strength-based, Life Design models.


Positive youth development Prevention Career development Career assessment Children Preadolescents Adolescents Life design Disability Strengths 


  1. Amundson, N. E., Borgen, W. A., Iaquinta, M., Butterfield, L. D., & Koert, E. (2010). Career decisions from the decider’s perspective. The Career Development Quarterly, 58, 336–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anthony, L. G., Kenworthy, L., Yerys, B. E., Jankowski, K. F., James, J. D., Harms, M. B., et al. (2013). Interests in high-functioning autism are more intense, interfering, and idiosyncratic, but not more circumscribed, than those in neurotypical development. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 643–652.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Blacher, J., Baker, B. L., & Berkovits, L. D. (2013). Family perspectives on child intellectual disability: views from the sunny side of the street. In M. L. Wehmeyer (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of positive psychology and disability (pp. 166–181). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Carter, E. W., Boehm, T. L., Biggs, E. E., Annandale, N. H., Taylor, C. E., Loock, A. K., et al. (2015). Known for my strengths: Positive traits of transition-age youth with intellectual disability and/or autism. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 40, 101–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheung, W. L. R. (2015). Fostering career exploration. In P.J. Hartung, M L., Savickas, & W.B. Walsh, (Eds), APA handbook of career intervention. Volume 2, Applications (pp. 157–169). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  6. Claes, C., Van Hove, G., Vandevelde, S., van Loon, J., & Schalock, R. L. (2010). Person-centered planning: analysis of research and effectiveness. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 48, 432–453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Deptula, D. P., Cohen, R., Phillipsen, L. C., & Ey, S. (2006). Expecting the best: The relation between peer optimism and social competence. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 130–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Duffy, R. D. (2010). Sense of control and career adaptability among undergraduate students. Journal of Career Assessment, 18, 420–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Erickson, A. G., Clark, G. M., & Patton, J. R. (2013). Informal assessments for transition planning. Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Ey, S., Hadley, W., Allen, D. N., Palmer, S., Klosky, J., Deptula, D., et al. (2005). A new measure of children’s optimism and pessimism: The Youth Life Orientation Test. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 548–558.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ferrari, L., Ginevra, M. C., Santilli, S., Nota, L., Sgaramella, T. M., & Soresi, S. (2015a). Career exploration and occupational knowledge in Italian children. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 15, 113–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ferrari, L., & Nota, L. (in press). Un training per incrementare le conoscenze professionali nei bambini della scuola dell’infanzia [A training to increase occupational knowledge in kindergarten children]. In L. Nota & M. C., Ginevra (Eds.), Orientamento e Life Design a scuola [Vocational Guidance and Life Design at school]. Padova: Cleup.Google Scholar
  13. Ferrari, L., Sgaramella, T. M., & Soresi, S. (2015b). Bridging disability and work: Contribution and challenges of Life Design. In L. Nota & J. Rossier (Eds.), Life design and career counseling (pp. 219–232). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  14. Flum, H., & Blustein, D. L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 380–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ginevra, M. C., Carraro, F., & Zicari, S. (2014). Psicologia positiva e i bambini dei nostri tempi [Positive psychology and the children of our times]. In L. Nota & S. Soresi (Eds.), La psicologia positiva a scuola e nei contesti formativi [Positive psycholgy at school and in training contexts] (pp. 7–21). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  16. Ginevra, M. C., Santilli, S., Di Maggio, I., Nota, L., & Soresi, S. (under review). Development and validation of vision about future for preadolescents. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. Google Scholar
  17. Hannah, S. T., Sweeney, P. J., & Lester, P. B. (2007). Toward a courageous mindset: The subjective act and experience of courage. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2, 129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harkins, M. A. (2001). Developmentally appropriate career guidance: Building concepts to last a lifetime. Early Childhood Education Journal, 28, 169–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hartung, P. J. (2015). Life Design in childhood: Antecedents and advancement. In L. Nota & J. Rossier (Eds.), Life design handbook (pp. 89–101). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  20. Hartung, P. J., Porfeli, E. J., & Vondracek, F. W. (2005). Child vocational development: A review and reconsideration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 385–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hartung, P. J., Porfeli, E. J., & Vondracek, F. W. (2008). Career adaptability in childhood. The Career Development Quarterly, 57, 63–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hirschi, A. (2009). Career adaptability development in adolescence: Multiple predictors and effect on sense of power and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 145–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hirschi, A. (2010). Swiss adolescents’ career aspirations: Influence of context, age, and career adaptability. Journal of Career Development, 36, 228–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Holwerda, A., Brouwer, S., de Boer, M. R., Groothoff, J. W., & van der Klink, J. J. (2015). Expectations from different perspectives on future work outcome of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 25, 96–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Idan, O., & Margalit, M. (2014). Socioemotional self-perceptions, family climate, and hopeful thinking among students with learning disabilities and typically achieving students from the same classes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47, 136–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Karaevli, A., & Hall, D. T. T. (2006). How career variety promotes the adaptability of managers: A theoretical model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 359–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. King, M., Shields, N., Imms, C., Black, M., & Ardern, C. (2013). Participation of children with intellectual disability compared with typically developing children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 1854–1862.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lent, R. W. (2013). Career-life preparedness: Revisiting career planning and adjustment in the new workplace. The Career Development Quarterly, 61, 2–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., Almerigi, J. B., Theokas, C., Phelps, E., Gestsdottir, S., et al. (2005). Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifth-grade adolescents findings from the first wave of the 4-H study of positive youth development. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 17–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lerner, J. V., Phelps, E., Forman, Y. E., & Bowers, E. P. (2009a). Positive youth development. Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lerner, R. M., von Eye, A., Lerner, J. V., & Lewin-Bizan, S. (2009b). Exploring the foundations and functions of adolescent thriving within the 4-H study of positive youth development: A view of the issues. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 567–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Levine, K. A., & Sutherland, D. (2013). History repeats itself: Parental involvement in children’s career exploration. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 47, 239.Google Scholar
  33. Lewin-Bizan, S., Lynch, A. D., Fay, K., Schmid, K., McPherran, C., Lerner, J. V., et al. (2010). Trajectories of positive and negative behaviors from early-to middle-adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 751–763.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Loesch, L. C., Rucker, B. B., & Shub, P. A. (1978). A field test of an instrument for assessing job knowledge. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 11, 26–32.Google Scholar
  35. Lopez, S. J., Rose, S., Robinson, C., Marques, S. C., & Pais-Ribeiro, J. (2009). Measuring and promoting hope in schoolchildren. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 37–50). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Malinauskas, R., & Vaicekauskas, A. (2013). Well-Being, activity, mood and optimistic way of thinking of adolescent athletes. Health Sciences, 23, 25–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Marquis, W. A., & Baker, B. L. (2015). Sports participation of children with or without developmental delay: Prediction from child and family factors. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 37, 45–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Masten, A. S., & Tellegen, A. (2012). Resilience in developmental psychopathology: Contributions of the project competence longitudinal study. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 345–361.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. McDermott, D., Hastings, S. L., Gariglietti, K. P., & Callahan, B. (1997). The development of the young children’s hope scale. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  40. McMahon, M. L., & Watson, M. B. (2001). Revised Career Awareness Survey. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  41. McMahon, M. L., & Watson, M. B. (2008). Systemic influences on career development: Assisting clients to tell their career stories. The Career Development Quarterly, 56, 280–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Meijers, F., & Lengelle, R. (2012). Narratives at work: The development of career identity. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 40, 157–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mueller, C. E., & Prout, H. T. (2009). Psychosocial adjustment of adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 2, 294–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Norton, P. J., & Weiss, B. J. (2009). The role of courage on behavioral approach in a fear-eliciting situation: A proof-of-concept pilot study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 212–217.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Nota, L., Ginevra, M. C., & Santilli, S. (2015). Life design and prevention. In L. Nota & J. Rossier (Eds.), Life design handbook (pp. 183–199). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  46. Nota, L., Ginevra, M. C., Santilli, S., & Soresi, S. (2014a). Contemporary career construction: The role of career adaptability. In M. Coetzee (Ed.), Psycho-social career meta-capacities (pp. 247–263). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nota, L., Ginevra, M. C., & Soresi, S. (2012). The career and work adaptability questionnaire (CWAQ): A first contribution to its validation. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 1557–1569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Nota, L., & Soresi, S. (2003). An assertiveness training program for indecisive students attending an Italian university. The Career Development Quarterly, 51, 322–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nota, L., & Soresi, S. (2009). Ideas and thoughts of Italian teachers on the professional future of persons with disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 53, 65–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Nota, L., Soresi, S., & Ferrari, L. (2014b). School inclusion in Italy: Emerging trends and future directions. In J. McLeskey, N. L. Waldron, F. Spooner, & B. Algozzine (Eds.), Handbook of research and practice for effective inclusive schools (pp. 521–533). London: Routledge Publishers.Google Scholar
  51. Nota, L., Ferrari, L., Sgaramella, T. M., & Soresi, S. (in press). Prevention and schooling in Italy: From past and present to the future. In M. Israelashvili & J. L. Romano, Cambridge Handbook of international prevention Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Patton, W., & Creed, P. (2007). Occupational aspirations and expectations of Australian adolescents. Australian Journal of Career Development, 16, 46–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Phelps, E., Zimmerman, S., Warren, A. E. A., Jeličić, H., von Eye, A., & Lerner, R. M. (2009). The structure and developmental course of positive youth development (PYD) in early adolescence: Implications for theory and practice. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 571–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Porfeli, E., Ferrari, L., & Nota, L. (2013). Work valence as a predictor of academic achievement in the family context. Journal of Career Development, 40, 371–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Porfeli, E. J., & Lee, B. (2012). Career development during childhood and adolescence. New Directions for Youth Development, 134, 11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Porfeli, E. J., Hartung, P. J., & Vondracek, F. W. (2008). Children’s vocational development: A research rationale. The Career Development Quarterly, 57, 25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Porfeli, E. J., & Savickas, M. L. (2012). Career adapt-abilities scale-USA form: Psychometric properties and relation to vocational identity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 748–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pouyaud, J., Vignoli, E., Dosnon, O., & Lallemand, N. (2012). Career adapt-abilities scale-France form: Psychometric properties and relationships to anxiety and motivation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 692–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pury, C. L., Kowalski, R. M., & Spearman, J. (2007). Distinctions between general and personal courage. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2, 99–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rachman, S. (2004). Fear of contamination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 1227–1255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Rate, C. R., Clarke, J. A., Lindsay, D. R., & Sternberg, R. J. (2007). Implicit theories of courage. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2, 80–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Reivich, K., Gillham, J. E., Chaplin, T. M., & Seligman, M. E. (2013). From helplessness to optimism: The role of resilience in treating and preventing depression in youth. Handbook of resilience in children (pp. 201–214). New York: Springer, US.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rohlfing, J. E., Nota, L., Ferrari, L., Soresi, S., & Tracey, T. J. (2012). Relation of occupational knowledge to career interests and competence perceptions in Italian children. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81, 330–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rutter, M. (2007). Resilience, competence, and coping. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31(3), 205–209.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Salmela-Aro, K., Mutanen, P., & Vuori, J. (2012). Promoting career preparedness and intrinsic work-goal motivation: RCT intervention. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Santilli, S., Nota, L., Ginevra, M. C., & Soresi, S. (2014). Career adaptability, hope and life satisfaction in workers with intellectual disability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85, 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Savickas, M. L. (2005). The theory and practice of career construction. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (pp. 42–70). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  68. Savickas, M. L. (2011). Constructing careers: Actor, agent, and author. Journal of Employment Counseling, 48, 179–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Savickas, M. L. (2013). The 2012 Leona Tyler award address constructing careers-actors, agents, and authors. The Counseling Psychologist, 41, 648–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Savickas, M. L., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J. P., Duarte, M. E., Guichard, J., et al. (2009). Life designing: A paradigm for career construction in the 21st century. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 239–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Savickas, M. L., & Porfeli, E. J. (2012). Career adapt-abilities scale: Construction, reliability, and measurement equivalence across 13 countries. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 661–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219–247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Schmitt-Wilson, S., & Welsh, M. C. (2012). Vocational knowledge in rural children: A study of individual differences and predictors of occupational aspirations and expectations. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 862–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schultheiss, D. E. P. (2005). Elementary career intervention programs: Social action initiatives. Journal of Career Development, 31, 185–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schultheiss, D. E. P. (2008). Current status and future agenda for the theory, research, and practice of childhood career development. The Career Development Quarterly, 57, 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schultheiss, D. E. P., Palma, T. V., & Manzi, A. J. (2005). Career development in middle childhood: A qualitative inquiry. The Career Development Quarterly, 53, 246–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sgaramella, T. M. (2015). Punti di forza e valori nel counselling con gli adolescenti: il contributo di alcuni studi della psicologia positiva [Strengths and values in counselling with adolescents: contribution from positive psychology studies]. In L. Nota & S. Soresi (Eds.), Il counseling del futuro [Counseling of the future] (pp. 127–140). Padova: Edizioni Cleup.Google Scholar
  78. Sgaramella, T. M., Di Maggio, I., Bellotto, M., & Castellani, R. (2014). Psicologia positiva ed età adulta emergente: identità, prospettiva temporale e prontezza professionale [Positive psychology and emerging adulthood: identities, time perspective and career preparedness]. In Soresi, S., & Nota, L. (Eds), La psicologia positiva a scuola e nei contesti formativi Strumenti e contributi di ricerca [Positive psychology at school and in educational contexts. Instruments and research studies] (pp. 79–95). Firenze: Hogrefe Editore.Google Scholar
  79. Shields, N., Synnot, A., & Kearns, C. (2015). The extent, context and experience of participation in out-of-school activities among children with disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 47, 165–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Shogren, K. A. (2013). Cognitive and developmental disabilities. In M. L. Wehmeyer (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of positive psychology and disability (pp. 442–451). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shogren, K. A., Luckasson, R., & Schalock, R. L. (2014). The definition of “context” and its application in the field of intellectual disability. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 11, 109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shogren, K. A., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Forber-Pratt, A. J., Little, T. J., & Lopez, S. (2015). Causal agency theory: Reconceptualizing a functional model of self-determination. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 50, 251.Google Scholar
  83. Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Snyder, C. R., Hoza, B., Pelham, W. E., Rapoff, M., Ware, L., Danovsky, M., et al. (1997). The development and validation of the Children’s Hope Scale. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 399–421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Soresi, S., Nota, L., & Ferrari, L. (2012). Career adapt-abilities scale-Italian form: Psychometric properties and relationships to breadth of interests, quality of life, and perceived barriers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 705–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Soresi, S., Nota, L., Ferrari, L., & Sgaramella, T. M. (2013). Career development and career thoughts in young and adults with disability. In Michael L. Wehemeyer (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology and disability (pp. 239–264). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Soresi, S., Nota, L., Ferrari, L. & Sgaramella, T. M. (2014). Pensando al lavoro [Thinking to work]. In Nota, L., & Soresi, S. (Eds). La psicologia positiva a scuola e nei contesti formativi Strumenti e contributi di ricerca. Appendice. [Positive psychology at school and in educational contexts. Instruments and research studies. Appendix]. Firenze: Hogrefe Publishing.Google Scholar
  88. Stipek, D. J., Lamb, M. E., & Zigler, E. F. (1981). OPTI: A measure of children’s optimism. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 41, 131–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sweeny, K., Carroll, P. J., & Shepperd, J. A. (2006). Is optimism always best? Future outlooks and preparedness. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 302–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Taveira, M. D. C., & Moreno, M. L. R. (2003). Guidance theory and practice: The status of career exploration. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 31, 189–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Toigo, M. (2014). Strenghts and resources in a group of young adults with Down Syndrome (Unpublished thesis). University of Padova, Padua.Google Scholar
  92. Tracey, T. J., & Caulum, D. (2015). Minimizing gender differences in children’s interest assessment: Development of the inventory of children’s activities-3 (ICA-3). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 87, 154–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tracey, T. J., & Darcy, M. (2002). An idiothetic examination of vocational interests and their relation to career decidedness. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49, 420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tracey, T. J., Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., Soresi, S., & Nota, L. (2006). Adherence to RIASEC structure in relation to career exploration and parenting style: Longitudinal and idiothetic considerations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 248–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Turner-Brown, L. M., Lam, K. S., Holtzclaw, T. N., Dichter, G. S., & Bodfish, J. W. (2011). Phenomenology and measurement of circumscribed interests in autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 15, 437–456.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Vuori, J., Price, R. H., Mutanen, P., & Malmberg-Heimonen, I. (2005). Effective group training techniques in job-search training. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. The Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wehmeyer, M. L. (2013). The Oxford handbook of positive psychology and disability. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wehmeyer, M. L. (2015). Framing the future self-determination. Remedial and Special Education, 36, 20–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wilkins, K. G., Santilli, S., Ferrari, L., Nota, L., Tracey, T. J., & Soresi, S. (2014). The relationship among positive emotional dispositions, career adaptability, and satisfaction in Italian high school students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85, 329–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Woodard, C. (2009). Psychometric properties of the ASPeCT-DD: Measuring positive traits in persons with developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 22, 433–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. World Economic Forum. (2016). The future of jobs. Geneva: World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
  103. World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health: ICF. Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  104. Zager, D. (2013). Positive psychology and autism spectrum disorders. In M. L. Wehmeyer (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of positive psychology and disability (pp. 494–505). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Nota
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lea Ferrari
    • 1
  • Teresa Maria Sgaramella
    • 1
  • Salvatore Soresi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Philosophy, Sociology, Education and Applied Psychology, Larios Laboratory, University Center for Disability, Rehabilitation and InclusionUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly

Personalised recommendations