Characterization of PSMs

  • Chad J. Penn
  • James M. Bowen


The purpose of this chapter is to present the detailed laboratory methods and methodology of PSM characterization that are necessary for designing a P removal structure and screening PSMs for safety. Through the information in this chapter, laboratory personnel can follow detailed instructions for conducting a complete PSM characterization. At the most basic level, designing a P removal structure requires knowledge of the quantitative relationship between dissolved P added to a PSM and the P removed by the PSM, expressed on a mass basis. This can only be achieved by producing a flow-through “design curve” that is specific to a given retention time and inflow P concentration for the PSM of interest. This P removal design curve can either be measured directly or predicted from a chemical characterization: detailed methods for both are provided. Physical characterization methods necessary for designing a P removal structure are also provided. Last, methods of safety characterization of PSMs are given. The characterization methods given in this chapter will provide all of the necessary PSM inputs required to design a P removal structure. Instructions on how to obtain site inputs and how to design a P removal structure is given in Chap.  6.


Phosphorus sorption material PSM characterization Flow-through Phosphorus removal curve Design curve Phosphorus sorption material PSM methods pH buffer index Phosphorus sorption material PSM safety 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chad J. Penn
    • 1
  • James M. Bowen
    • 2
  1. 1.USDA Agricultural Research ServiceNational Soil Erosion Research LaboratoryWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.University of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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