Advertisement

The International Effect of the Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities on Access in Society and Information

  • Leo BaldigaEmail author
  • Jacob Gattuso
  • Sophia Baker
  • Holly Gruber
  • Phillip J. Deaton
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10290)

Abstract

Accessibility standards across the world have changed drastically since the 1970s, with many social reforms, building access requirements, and information technology being modernized to accommodate the needs of the differently abled. This paper seeks to analyze how the United Nations (UN) Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) has affected the social atmosphere of various states around the world that have implemented the CRPD to various degrees. This social atmosphere consists of three core components: socio-political perceptions, laws, and information access standards within each sovereign state. Each are aspects that directly affect the quality of life afforded to persons with disabilities that are citizens of these states.

Keywords

Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities Disabilities Accessibility International law Human rights Infrastructure Health care Education Transportation Government Web 

References

  1. 1.
    United Nations General Assembly: Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. New York (2006). http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/convention/convoptprot-e.pdf
  2. 2.
    Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Ottawa (1982). http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/const/page-15.html
  3. 3.
    Canadian Human Rights Act, Ottawa (1985). http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/h-6/page-1.html#h-2
  4. 4.
    Accessible Transportation (2016). http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/policy/acc-accf-menu.htm
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    Rights of people with disabilities (2016). http://www.canada.pch.gc.ca/eng/1448633334025
  7. 7.
    Community Care Access Centres, Ontario (2015). http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/public/contact/ccac/
  8. 8.
    Towle, H.: Disability and Inclusions in Canadian Education: Policy, Procedure, and Practice (2015). http://www.communitylivingkingston.org/Portals/11/Disability_and_Inclusion_in_Education.pdf
  9. 9.
    Pastora, J.S.: How the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) Might Be Used in Canadian Litigation. http://www.ccdonline.ca/en/socialpolicy/poverty-citizenship/legal-protections/crpd-in-canadian-litigation
  10. 10.
    CRPD List of Countries: Convention, Optional Protocol Signatures, Ratifications (2016). https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/discrimination/crpd-milestone.php
  11. 11.
    U.S. Department of Justice: A Guide to Disability Rights Laws (2009). https://www.ada.gov/cguide.htm#anchor65610
  12. 12.
    Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Summary of Key Points (2016). https://lifecenter.ric.org/index.php?tray=content&cid=16
  13. 13.
    Equal Opportunity Employment Commission: The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (n.d.). https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/history/35th/1990s/ada.html
  14. 14.
    U.S. Census Bureau: Nearly 1 in 5 People have a Disability in the U.S., Census Bureau Reports (2012). https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/miscellaneous/cb12-134.html
  15. 15.
    Coverage Options for Persons with Disabilities (n.d.). https://www.healthcare.gov/people-with-disabilities/coverage-options/
  16. 16.
    Heward, W.L.: Six Major Principles of IDEA (2013). https://www.education.com/reference/article/six-major-principles-idea/
  17. 17.
    U.S. Department of Education: Building The Legacy: IDEA 2004 (2017). http://idea.ed.gov/
  18. 18.
    U.S. Department of Education: Free Appropriate Public Education for Students With Disabilities: Requirements Under Section 504 of The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (2010). https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/edlite-FAPE504.html
  19. 19.
    White Paper on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2015). http://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/39792_gon230.pdf
  20. 20.
    Integrated National Disability Strategy (1997). http://www.independentliving.org/docs3/sa1997wp.pdf
  21. 21.
    Nigel Worden: The Making of Modern South Africa: Conquest, Apartheid, Democracy, 5th edn. (2012). http://site.ebrary.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/lib/michstate/reader.action?ppg=1&docID=10518634&tm=1488418309454
  22. 22.
    Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, 2002 (2002). http://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/acts/2000-004.pdf
  23. 23.
    Disability Rights Charter of South Africa (n.d.). http://www.vut.ac.za/drop/disability/DISABILITY_RIGHTS_CHARTER.pdf
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
    United Nations General Assembly: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/
  26. 26.
    Selod, H., Zenou, Y.: Private versus public schools in post-Apartheid South African cities: theory and policy implications. J. Dev. Econ. 71(2), 351–394 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dalton, E.M., Mckenzie, J.A., Kahonde, C.: The implementation of inclusive education in South Africa: reflections arising from a workshop for teachers and therapists to introduce universal design for learning: original research. Afr. J. Disabil. 1(1), 1–7 (2012)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    SABS Standards Division: The Application of the National Building Regulations South African National Standard (2011). https://law.resource.org/pub/za/ibr/za.sans.10400.s.2011.html
  29. 29.
    Central Intelligence Agency: The World Factbook, India: Census Data (2016). https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_in.html
  30. 30.
    Government of India Ministry of Law and Justice: The Constitution of India (2015). http://lawmin.nic.in/olwing/coi/coi-english/coi-4March2016.pdf
  31. 31.
    Government of India Ministry of Law and Justice: Rehabilitation Council Act of India (1992). http://niepmd.tn.nic.in/documents/RCI%20Act.pdf
  32. 32.
    Government of India Ministry of Law and Justice: The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act (1995). http://newsonair.nic.in/PWD_Act.pdf
  33. 33.
    Government of India Ministry of Law and Justice: The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act (2016). http://www.prsindia.org/uploads/media/Person%20with%20Disabilities/Rights%20of%20Persons%20with%20Disabilities%20Act,%202016.pdf
  34. 34.
    Hiranandani, V.: Disability, economic globalization and privatization: a case study of India. Disabil. Stud. Q. 30(3) (2010). http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1272/1302
  35. 35.
    Sarkar, M.: Disability in India: The Struggles of Infrastructure, Prejudice and Karma. CNN (2013). http://www.cnn.com/2013/12/27/world/asia/india-disability-challenges/
  36. 36.
    Abidi, J., Sharma, D.: Disability as Human Rights Issue: India’s “Invisible Minority” in the Policy Realm. Yojana, April 2013 issue (2013). http://www.insightsonindia.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/disability-as-human-right-policy-yojana-april-2013.pdf
  37. 37.
    Phillips, S.D.: “There are no invalids in the USSR!”: a missing soviet chapter in the new disability history. Disabil. Stud. Q. 29(3) (2009)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bonneville, K.: Civil Society and Human Rights. Topical Research Digest: Human Rights in Russia and the Former Soviet Republics, pp. 4–8 (2007). http://www.du.edu/korbel/hrhw/researchdigest/russia/russia.pdf
  39. 39.
    Council of Europe: Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms as Amended by Protocols No. 11 and No. 14 (1950). https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=0900001680063765
  40. 40.
    European Court of Human Rights: Case of Shtukaturov v. Russia (2008). http://www.mdac.org/en/content/shtukaturov-v-russia-judgment
  41. 41.
    The Committee on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities: Consideration of Reports Submitted by States’ Parties in Accordance with Article 35 of the Convention: Russian Federation (2015). http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRPD%2fC%2fRUS%2f1&Lang=en
  42. 42.
    Mazzarino, A.: Barriers Everywhere: Lack of Accessibility for People with Disabilities in Russia. Human Rights Watch (2013). https://www.hrw.org/report/2013/09/11/barriers-everywhere/lack-accessibility-people-disabilities-russia
  43. 43.
    Human Rights Watch: Russia: Children With Disabilities Face Discrimination (2015). https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/09/01/russia-children-disabilities-face-discrimination
  44. 44.
    Central Intelligence Agency: World Factbook South Sudan. Census data (2016). https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_od.html
  45. 45.
    Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly: South Sudan’s Constitution of 2011 (2011). https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/South_Sudan_2011.pdf
  46. 46.
    Government of Southern Sudan: South Sudan Development Plan 2011–2013 (2011). http://www.grss-mof.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/RSS_SSDP.pdf
  47. 47.
    Government of Southern Sudan Ministry of Gender, Child, Social Welfare, Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management: South Sudan National Disability and Inclusion Policy (2013). http://mgcswss.org/wp-content/uploads/South-Sudan-National-Disability-and-Inclusion-Policy.pdf
  48. 48.
    Republic of South Sudan Ministry of Education, Science and Technology: The National Inclusive Education Policy (2014). https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/system/files/documents/files/Draft%20Policy%20Position%20Paper_TC220514.pdf
  49. 49.
    Caldwell, B., Cooper, M., Reid, L.G., Vanderheiden, G.: Web content accessibility guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. WWW Consortium (W3C) (2008). https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/
  50. 50.
    Caldwell, B., Chisholm, W., Slatin, J., Vanderheiden, G.: Understanding WCAG 2.0 (2007). https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leo Baldiga
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jacob Gattuso
    • 2
  • Sophia Baker
    • 3
  • Holly Gruber
    • 4
  • Phillip J. Deaton
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Journalism, College of Communication Arts and Sciences, James Madison CollegeMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Lyman Briggs CollegeMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  3. 3.College of EngineeringMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  4. 4.Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Department of PsychologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  5. 5.Information Technology – Digital Content and AccessibilityMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations