Supporting Social Engagement for Young Audiences with Serious Games and Virtual Environments in Museums

  • Panagiotis Apostolellis
  • Doug A. Bowman
  • Marjee Chmiel
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Cultural Computing book series (SSCC)

Abstract

Considering the shift of museums toward digital experiences that can satiate the interests of their young audiences, we suggest an integrated schema for socially engaging large visitor groups. As a means to present our position, we propose a framework for audience involvement with complex educational material, combining serious games and virtual environments along with a theory of contextual learning in museums. We suggest that effective learning with school groups visiting museums can occur through the facilitation of coordinated activities of young participants with appropriately designed technological mediation. We use the term orchestrated learning to present our rationale on how such activities can lead to enhanced learning through increased motivation and social interactions. In order to validate our framework, we built a testbed application that supports collaborative gameplay of small and large student groups. The application, named C-OLiVE: Collaborative Orchestrated Learning in Virtual Environments, is a 3D simulation game that allows participants to learn the process of olive oil production. The game has been used so far in three studies with 710 students in schools, summer camps, and a museum. We describe the modes of visitor involvement that were designed and tested with middle school students in the different learning settings. Finally, we present our most important findings and discuss their implications for the design of interactive digital experiences for young audiences visiting museums. These findings serve both as evidence for the applicability of our framework and as a guidepost for the direction we should move to foster richer technology-mediated social engagement of young crowds in museums.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all the Virginia Tech departments that supported our work over the years, such as the College of Engineering, the Center for Human-Computer Interaction, and the Institute for Creativity, Arts, and Technology. Also, Eric Ragan, Michael Stewart (CS); Reza Tasooji, Ellie Nikoo (School of Visual Arts); and Chreston Miller (University Libraries) for their assistance in designing the game, building the 3D models, and running the data analysis, respectively. We also want to thank Allison Loughlin from the Franklin Institute for giving us the opportunity to present the game as a case study in the museum. Last, but not least, the lead author deeply thanks his wife, Anna Delinikola, for her continuous support during all these years, also acting as a research assistant in some of the studies.

References

  1. Adams M, Moussouri T (2002) The interactive experience: linking research & practice. In: International conference on interactive learning in museums of art and design. Victoria and Albert Museum, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Apostolellis P, Bowman DA (2014) Evaluating the effects of orchestrated, game-based learning in virtual environments for informal education. In: Proceedings of the 11th ACM conference on advances in computer entertainment technology (ACE’14). ACM Press, Madeira, Portugal (Article 4)Google Scholar
  3. Apostolellis P, Bowman DA (2015) Small group learning with games in museums: effects of interactivity as mediated by cultural differences. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on interaction design and children (IDC’15). ACM Press, Boston, pp 160–169Google Scholar
  4. Apostolellis P, Bowman DA (2016) Audience involvement and agency in digital games: effects on learning, game experience, and social presence. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on interaction design and children (IDC’16). ACM Press, Manchester, UK, pp 299–310Google Scholar
  5. Barab SA, Gresalfi M, Arici A (2009) Why educators should care about games. Educ Leadersh 67(1):76–80Google Scholar
  6. Barab SA, Pettyjohn P, Gresalfi M et al (2012) Game-based curriculum and transformational play: designing to meaningfully positioning person, content, and context. Comput Educ 58(1):518–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beale K (2011) Museums at play: games, interaction and learning. MuseumsEtc, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown B, Bell M (2004) CSCW at play: “there” as a collaborative virtual environment. In: Proceedings of the ACM conference on computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW’04). pp 350–359Google Scholar
  9. Brown JS, Collins A, Duguid P (1989) Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educ Res 18(1):32–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chmiel M (2009) Game design towards scientific literacy. Int J Cogn Technol 14(2):32Google Scholar
  11. Christopoulos D, Apostolellis P, Onasiadis A (2009) Educational virtual environments for digital dome display systems with audience participation. In: Proceedings of the 13th Panhellenic conference in informatics-workshop in education. Corfu, Greece, pp 265–275Google Scholar
  12. Crook C, Harrison C, Farrington-Flint L, et al (2010) The impact of technology: value-added classroom practice: final report. British educational communications and technology agency (BECTA), Coventry, UKGoogle Scholar
  13. Csikszentmihalyi M (1990) Flow: the psychology of optimal experience. Harper Perennial, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Csikszentmihalyi M, Hermanson K (1999) Intrinsic motivation in museums: why does one want to learn? In: Hooper-Greenhill E (ed) The educational role of the museum, 2nd ed. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Dannenberg RB, Fisher R (2001) An audience-interactive multimedia production on the brain. In: Proceedings of the connecticut college symposium on art and technology. Connecticut college, Connecticut, USA, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  16. de Freitas S (2006) Using games and simulations for supporting learning. Learn Media Technol 31(4):343–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. de Kort YAW, Ijsselsteijn WA (2007) Digital games as social presence technology: development of the social presence in gaming questionnaire (SPGQ). In: Proceedings of PRESENCE. pp 195–203Google Scholar
  18. Dede C (2009) Immersive interfaces for engagement and learning. Science 323(5910):66–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dede C, Salzman M, Loftin RB, Ash K (2000) Using virtual reality technology to convey abstract scientific concepts. In: Jacobson MJ, Kozma RB (eds) Learning the sciences of the 21st century: research, design, and implementing advanced technology learning environments. Lawrence Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  20. Di Blas N, Poggi C, Reeves TC (2006) Collaborative learning in a 3D virtual environment: design factors and evaluation results. In: Proceedings of the 7th international conference on learning sciences. pp 127–133Google Scholar
  21. Doll S (2012) Digital technologies and visitng school groups. Master thesis. Department of communication sciences, University of LuganoGoogle Scholar
  22. Eisenberger R (1999) The museum goer’s motives: the social and the sublime. Visit Stud Today 2(3):1–5Google Scholar
  23. Falk JH, Dierking LD (2000) Learning from museums: visitor experiences and the making of meaning. AltaMira Press, Walnut CreekGoogle Scholar
  24. Gajadhar BJ, De Kort YAW, Ijsselsteijn WA (2008) Shared fun is doubled fun: player enjoyment as a function of social setting. In: Markopoulos P (ed) Fun and games. LNCS, vol 5294. pp 106–117Google Scholar
  25. Hedegaard M, Fleer M (2013) Play, learning, and children’s development. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hofstede G, Hofstede GJ, Minkov M (2010) Cultures and organizations: software of the mind, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Hsi S (2003) A study of user experiences mediated by nomadic web content in a museum. J Comput Assist Learn 19(3):308–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ijsselsteijn W, De Kort Y, Bellotti F, Jurgelionis A (2007) Characterising and measuring user experiences in digital games. In: Proceedings of the international conference on advances in computer entertainment technology (ACE). Salzburg, Austria, Austria, pp 27–30Google Scholar
  29. Ketelhut DJ, Dede C, Clarke J et al (2007) Studying situated learning in a multi-user virtual environment. In: Baker E, Dickieson J, Wulfeck W, O’Neil H (eds) Assessment of problem solving using simulations. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 37–58Google Scholar
  30. Kirschner PA, Sweller J, Clark RE (2006) Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: an analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educ Psychol 41(2):75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Klopfer E, Perry J, Squire K, et al (2005) Mystery at the museum: a collaborative game for museum education. In: Proceedings of the 2005 conference on computer support for collaborative learning: the next 10 years. International Society of the Learning Sciences, pp 316–320Google Scholar
  32. Lave J, Wenger E (1991) Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation. University of Cambridge Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Malone TW, Lepper MR (1987) Making learning fun: a taxonomic model of intrinsic motivations for learning. In: Snow RE, Farr MJ (eds) Aptitude learning and instruction III: Conative and affective process analysis. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, pp 223–253Google Scholar
  34. Markopoulos P (2016) Towards adulthood: retrospective and reflection on IDC research. In: Keynote speech presented at the ACM interaction design and children conference. Manchester, UKGoogle Scholar
  35. McLean K, Pollock W (2011) The convivial museum. Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC), WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  36. Miller C, Quek F (2012) Interactive data-driven discovery of temporal behavior models from events in media streams. In: Proceedings of the 20th ACM international conference on Multimedia. pp 459–468Google Scholar
  37. Packer J (2006) Learning for fun: the unique contribution of educational leisure experiences. Curator: Mus J 49(3):329–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Packer J, Ballantyne R (2005) Solitary vs. shared: exploring the social dimension of museum learning. Curator: Mus J 48(2):177–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Perry D (2012) What makes learning fun? Principles for the design of intrinsically motivating museum exhibits. AltaMira Press, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  40. Prensky M (2001) Digital natives. Digit Immigr Horiz 9(5):1–6Google Scholar
  41. Ragan ED, Endert A, Bowman DA, Quek F (2012) How spatial layout, interactivity, and persistent visibility affect learning with large displays. In: Proceedings of the international working conference on advanced visual interfaces-AVI ’12. ACM Press, New York, pp 91–98Google Scholar
  42. Roussou M, Oliver M, Slater M (2006) The virtual playground: an educational virtual reality environment for evaluating interactivity and conceptual learning. Virtual Real 10(3–4):227–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schauble L, Leinhardt G, Martin Laura (1997) A framework for organizing a cumulative research agenda in informal learning contexts. J Mus Educ 22(2–3):3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shade BJ (1989) The influence of perceptual development on cognitive style: cross ethnic comparisons. Early Child Dev Care 51(1):137–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Simon N (2016) The art of relevance. Museum 2.0, Santa Cruz, CAGoogle Scholar
  46. Squire K, Jenkins H (2003) Harnessing the power of games in education. Insight 3(1):5–33Google Scholar
  47. vom Lehn D, Heath C (2003) Displacing the object: mobile technologies and interpretive resources. In: Perrot,(d. 2007) X (ed) In: Proceedings of the international cultural heritage informatics meeting (ICHIM’03). Archives & Museum Informatics, École du Louvre, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  48. Vygotsky L (1978) Mind in society. Harvard University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. Wertsch JV (1985) Culture, communication, and cognition: Vygotskian perspectives. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Wishart J, Triggs P (2010) MuseumScouts: exploring how schools, museums and interactive technologies can work together to support learning. Comput Educ 54(3):669–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zyda M (2005) From visual simulation to virtual reality to games. Computer 38(9):25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panagiotis Apostolellis
    • 1
  • Doug A. Bowman
    • 1
  • Marjee Chmiel
    • 1
  1. 1.Virginia TechBlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations