Advertisement

Branding and the Search for Competitive Advantage in the Field of Mozambican Higher Education Through the Use of Websites

  • Patrício V. Langa
  • Nelson C. Zavale
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter examines how Mozambican higher education institutions use branding to differentiate themselves, promote their image and gain an advantage in an increasing competitive social field of higher education. We discuss the notions of brand and branding in higher education, while distinguishing from marketing. We provide the theoretical and methodological basis for examining branding in higher education. Drawing from the Mozambican case study, we examine some strategies used by higher education institutions to create and promote their brand to a variety of stakeholders. We identify four ways in which higher education institutions distinguish themselves from their competitors: years of existence, area of specialization, the services/facilities they provide, the pedagogical approach they use, and the images of personalities shown on their websites. We then conclude that branding is becoming a strategy used by institutions to survive, pursue or even maintain competitive advantage.

Keywords

Branding Marketing Competition Higher education Mozambique Websites 

References

  1. Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing brand equity: Capitalizing on the value of a brand name. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbaum, A. (1993, February 1). The mismanagement of brand equity. ARF Fifth Annual Advertising and Promotion Workshop. In K. L. Keller (Ed.), Strategic brand management: Building, measuring and managing brand equity. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Altbach, P. G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L. E. (2009). Trends in global higher education: Tracking an academic revolution: A report prepared for the UNESCO 2009 world conference on higher education. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  4. A-Politécnica. (2012). Website [online]. Available: www.apolitecnica.ac.mz. Accessed 12 Aug 2012.
  5. AM. (2014). Website [online]. Available: http://www.academiamilitar.ac.mz/. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  6. Balmer, J. M. T. (2001). Corporate identity, corporate branding and corporate marketing. Seeing through the fog. European Journal of Marketing, 35(3/4), 248–291.Google Scholar
  7. Beneke, J. (2011). Marketing the institution to prospective students. A review of brand (reputation) management in higher education. International Journal of Business Management, 6(1), 29–44.Google Scholar
  8. Berry, L. L. (2000). Cultivating service brand equity. Academy of Marketing Science Journal, 28(1), 128–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beverwijk, J. (2005). The genesis of a system: Coalition formation in Mozambique higher education, 1993–2005. CHEPS/UT.Google Scholar
  10. Bok, D. (2003). Universities in the marketplace: The commercialization of higher education. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bourdieu, P., & Wacquant, L. (1992). An invitation to reflexive sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  12. Chapleo, C. (2004). Interpretation and implementation of reputation/brand management by UK university leaders. International Journal of Educational Advancement, 5(1), 7–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chapleo, C., Durán, M. V. C., & Díaz, A. C. (2011). Do UK universities communicate their brands effectively through their websites? Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 21(1), 25–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Direcção para a Coordenação do Ensino Superior (DICES). (2012). Estatísticas e indicadores de Ensino Superior. Maputo: Ministério da Educação.Google Scholar
  15. Dom Bosco. (2014). Facebook page. [Online]. Available: https://www.facebook.com/ISDBMZ. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  16. Drori, G. S., Delmestri, G., & Oberg, A. (2013). Branding the university: Relational strategy of identity construction in a competitive field. In P. Scott & L. Engwall (Eds.), Trust in higher education institutions (pp. 134–147). Lond: Portland Press.Google Scholar
  17. ESEG. (2014). Facebook page. [Online]. Available: https://www.facebook.com/pages/ESEG-Escola-Superior-de-Economia-e-Gest%C3%A3o/473094526053114. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  18. Escola Superior de Jornalismo (ESJ). (2014). Website. [Online]. Available: http://www.esj.ac.mz/. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  19. Gray, B. J., Fam, K. S., & Llanes, V. A. (2003). Branding universities in Asian markets. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 12(2), 108–120.Google Scholar
  20. Hanover Research (HR). (2014). Trends in higher education, marketing, recruitment and technology. [Online]. Available: http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/Trends-in-Higher-Education-Marketing-Recruitment-and-Technology-2.pdf. Accessed 20 July 2014.
  21. Heist (2004). Pitching to win. [Online]. Available: http://www.heist.co.uk/corporate.identity/pitchingtowin.cfm?a=a. Accessed 20 July 2014.
  22. Hemsley-Brown, J., and Goonawardana, S. (2007). Brand harmonization on the international higher education market. Journal of Business Research, 60, 942–948. [Online]. Available: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/149645/1/HemsleyBrownGoodawardana.pdf. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  23. Hemsley-Brown, J., & Oplatka, I. (2006). Universities in a competitive global marketplace: A systematic review of the literature on higher education marketing. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 19(4), 316–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ind, N. (2004). Living the brand: How to transform every member of your organisation into a brand champion. Sterling, VA: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  25. Instituto Superior de Administração Pública (ISAP). (2014). Website. [Online] Available: http://www.isap.ac.mz/. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  26. Instituto Superior de Artes e Cultura (ISArc). (2014). Website. [Online]. Available: http://www.isarc.edu.mz/. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  27. Instituto Superior de Comunicação e Imagem (ISCIM). (2014). Website. [Online]. Available: http://iscim.ac.mz/?page_id=53. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  28. Instituto Superior de Tecnologia Alberto Chipande (ISTAC). (2014). Website. [Online]. Available: http://www.isctac.org/. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  29. Instituto Superior de Ciências e Técnologia de Moçambique. (2012). Website. [Online]. Available: www.isctem.com. Accessed 12 Aug 2014.
  30. Instituto Superior de Gestão, Negócio e Finanças. (2014). Website. [Online]. Available: http://isgecof.ac.mz/. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  31. Instituto Superior Monitor. (2014). Website. [Online]. Available: www.ismonitor.ac.mz/. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  32. Instituto Superior Maria Mãe de África. (2014). Facebook page. [Online]. Available: https://www.facebook.com/pages/ISMMA-Instituto-Superior-Maria-M%C3%A3e-de-%C3%81frica/127736000628389. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  33. Instituto Superior Politénico de Gaza. (2014). Website. [Online]. Available: http://ispg-mz.net/. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  34. Instituto Superior Politénico de Songo. (2014). Website. [Online]. Available: http://www.ispsongo.ac.mz/cursos.html. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  35. Instituto Superior Polítécnico de Tete. (2014). Website. [Online]. Available: http://www.ispt.ac.mz/. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  36. Instituto Superior de Relações Internacionais. (2012). Website. [Online]. Available: www.isri.ac.mz. Accessed 12 Aug 2014.
  37. Instituto Superior de Técnologia e Gestão. (2012). Website. [Online]. Available: www.isteg.ac.mz. Accessed 12 Aug 2014.
  38. Instituto Superior de Transportes e Comunicação. (2012). Website. [Online]. Available: www.transcom.co.mz/isutc. Accessed 12 Aug 2014.
  39. Keller, K. (2008). Strategic brand management – Building, measuring and managing brand equity (3rd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  40. Klassen, L. (2000). Lots of fun, not much work, and no hassles: Marketing images of higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 10(2), 11–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Langa, P. V. (2006). The constitution of the field of higher education institutions in Mozambique. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of Cape Town Library. Cape Town: University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
  42. Langa, P. V. (2010). Disciplines and Engagement in African Universities: A study of the distribution of scientific capital and academic networking in the social sciences. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cape Town Library. Cape Town: University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
  43. Langa, P. V. (2011). The significance of Bourdieu’s concept of cultural capital to analysing the field of higher education in Mozambique. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 48(1), 93–116.Google Scholar
  44. Mário, M., Fry, P., Levy, L., & Chilundo, A. (2003). Higher education in Mozambique: A case study. Oxford: James Curry.Google Scholar
  45. McKnight, O., & Paugh, R. (1999, January). Advertising slogans and University marketing: An exploratory study of brand-fit and cognition in higher education. In Marketing Management Proceedings (pp. 50–55). Terre Haute, IN: Indiana State University.Google Scholar
  46. Mortimer, K. (1997). Recruiting overseas graduate students: Are their information requirements being satisfied? Higher Education Quarterly, 51(3), 225–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Naidoo, R., Goslingb, J., Boldenc, R., O’Brienb, A., & Hawkins, B. (2014). Leadership and branding in business schools: A Bourdieusian analysis. Higher Education Research & Development, 33(1), 144–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Opoku, R., Abratt, R., & Pitt, L. (2006). Communicating brand personality: Are the websites doing the talking for the top South African Business Schools? Journal of Brand Management, 14(1–2), 20–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Opoku, R. A., Hultmanb, M., & Saheli-Sangarib, E. (2008). Positioning in market space: The evaluation of Swedish universities’ online brand personalities. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 18(1), 124–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wangenge-Ouma, G., & Langa, P. V. (2010). Universities and the mobilization of claims of excellence for competitive advantage. Higher Education, 59(6), 749–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shampeny, R. (2003). Colleges turn attention to branding in competition for new students. The Business Review. [Online] Available: http://www.bizjournals.com/albany/stories/2003/10/27/focus5.html?page=all. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  52. Siguaw, J. (1999). The brand personality scale: an application for restaurants. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 40(3), 48–56.Google Scholar
  53. Stabile, D. R. (2007). Economics, competition and academia: An intellectual history of sophism versus virtue. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tang, T. (2011). Marketing higher education across borders: A cross-cultural analysis of university websites in the US and China. Chinese Journal of Communication, 4(4), 417–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Universidade Eduardo Mondlane. (2012). Website. [Online]. Available: http://www.uem.mz. Accessed 12 Aug 2014.
  56. Universidade Católica de Moçambique. (2012). Website. [Online]. Available: www.ucm.ac.mz. Accessed 12 Aug 2014.
  57. Universidade Lúrio. (2014). Website. [online]. http://www.unilurio.ac.mz/unilurio/. Accessed 18 July 2014.
  58. Universidade Pedagógica. (2012). Website. [Online]. Available: www.up.ac.mz. Accessed 12 Aug 2014.
  59. Universidade Zambeze. (2014). Website. [Online]. Available: http://www.unizambeze.ac.mz/. Accessed 12 July 2014.
  60. Universidade São Tomás de Moçambique. (2012). Website. [Online]. Available: www.ustm.ac.mz. Accessed 12 Aug 2014.
  61. Waerras, A., & Solbakk, M. (2009). Defining the essence of a university: Lessons from higher education branding. Higher Education, 57(4), 449–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zemsky, R., Shaman, S., & Shapiro, D. (2001). Higher education as competitive enterprise: When markets matter. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrício V. Langa
    • 1
  • Nelson C. Zavale
    • 2
  1. 1.University of the Western Cape/Eduardo Mondlane UniversityCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Eduardo Mondlane UniversityMaputoMozambique

Personalised recommendations