Metal Allergy pp 533-544 | Cite as

Metal Allergy and the Lungs

Chapter

Abstract

Metals may induce diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract, with clinical presentations including asthma, rhinosinusitis, acute bronchitis, acute pneumonitis, carcinoma, and interstitial lung disease. Several metals have a wide range of industrial applications, thus leading to occupational exposure. The current knowledge of airway allergy to metals (impact of metals on the immune system, metals causing immunological asthma, diagnostic problems of metal-induced asthma) has been presented in the chapter. Only a few metals may cause immunological asthma, and all belong to transition metals of the fourth (chromium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, zinc), fifth (rhodium, palladium), and sixth (platinum, iridium) periods of the periodic table. The underlying immune and nonimmune mechanisms involved in asthma caused by metals or metal salts are various and have not yet been fully elucidated. Laboratory tests (skin and serological tests, lymphocyte proliferation test) have limited value in the diagnosis of metal-induced immunological asthma. Specific inhalation challenge tests play a key role in the diagnostics of metal-induced asthma. Exposure to beryllium may lead to sensitization and chronic granulomatous lung disease. Other metals such as indium, zirconium, titanium, cobalt, aluminum, and copper sulfate may also sporadically induce lung pathologies.

Keywords

Metals Metal salts Metal-induced airway allergy Metal-induced asthma 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Diseases, Asthma and AllergyMedical University of ŁódźŁódźPoland

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