Metal Allergy pp 483-493 | Cite as

Metal Allergy and Hand Eczema

  • Richard Brans
  • Swen M. John


Hand eczema can be caused or aggravated by metals, especially in occupational settings. In particular, metal-induced allergic contact dermatitis of the hands should be considered in individuals with metal allergy. The most important metal allergens are nickel, cobalt and chromium. The level and type of exposure to these metals have substantially changed over time and differ between countries. Thus, if a metal is suspected as a possible cause of hand eczema in sensitised individuals, a thorough investigation is required to assess the specific metal exposure and its relevance.


  1. 1.
    Meding B, Jarvholm B. Hand eczema in Swedish adults - changes in prevalence between 1983 and 1996. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;118:719–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thyssen JP, Johansen JD, Linneberg A, Menne T. The epidemiology of hand eczema in the general population–prevalence and main findings. Contact Dermatitis. 2010;62:75–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coenraads PJ. Hand eczema is common and multifactorial. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1568–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Diepgen TL, Andersen KE, Brandao FM, Bruze M, Bruynzeel DP, Frosch P, Goncalo M, Goossens A, Le Coz CJ, Rustemeyer T, White IR, Agner T. Hand eczema classification: a cross-sectional, multicentre study of the aetiology and morphology of hand eczema. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160:353–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Johansen JD, Hald M, Andersen BL, Laurberg G, Danielsen A, Avnstorp C, Kristensen B, Kristensen O, Kaaber K, Thormann J, Menne T, Veien N. Classification of hand eczema: clinical and aetiological types. Based on the guideline of the Danish contact dermatitis group. Contact Dermatitis. 2011;65:13–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Molin S, Diepgen TL, Ruzicka T, Prinz JC. Diagnosing chronic hand eczema by an algorithm: a tool for classification in clinical practice. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2011;36:595–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Apfelbacher CJ, Funke U, Radulescu M, Diepgen TL. Determinants of current hand eczema: results from case-control studies nested in the PACO follow-up study (PACO II). Contact Dermatitis. 2010;62:363–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bryld LE, Hindsberger C, Kyvik KO, Agner T, Menne T. Risk factors influencing the development of hand eczema in a population-based twin sample. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:1214–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lerbaek A, Kyvik KO, Ravn H, Menne T, Agner T. Incidence of hand eczema in a population-based twin cohort: genetic and environmental risk factors. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:552–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Coenraads PJ, Diepgen TL. Risk for hand eczema in employees with past or present atopic dermatitis. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1998;71:7–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dickel H, Kuss O, Schmidt A, Diepgen TL. Impact of preventive strategies on trend of occupational skin disease in hairdressers: population based register study. BMJ. 2002;324:1422–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Visser MJ, Landeck L, Campbell LE, McLean WHI, Weidinger S, Calkoen F, John SM, Kezic S. Impact of atopic dermatitis and loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene on the development of occupational irritant contact dermatitis. Br J Dermatol. 2013; 168(2):326–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Flint GN. A metallurgical approach to metal contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 1998;39:213–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liden C, Menne T, Burrows D. Nickel-containing alloys and platings and their ability to cause dermatitis. Br J Dermatol. 1996;134:193–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nielsen NH, Menne T, Kristiansen J, Christensen JM, Borg L, Poulsen LK. Effects of repeated skin exposure to low nickel concentrations: a model for allergic contact dermatitis to nickel on the hands. Br J Dermatol. 1999;141:676–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thyssen JP, Menne T, Johansen JD, Liden C, Julander A, Moller P, Jellesen MS. A spot test for detection of cobalt release - early experience and findings. Contact Dermatitis. 2010;63:63–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thyssen JP, Skare L, Lundgren L, Menne T, Johansen JD, Maibach HI, Liden C. Sensitivity and specificity of the nickel spot (dimethylglyoxime) test. Contact Dermatitis. 2010;62:279–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bregnbak D, Johansen JD, Jellesen MS, Zachariae C, Thyssen JP. Chromium(VI) release from leather and metals can be detected with a diphenylcarbazide spot test. Contact Dermatitis. 2015;73:281–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jensen P, Thyssen JP, Johansen JD, Skare L, Menne T, Liden C. Occupational hand eczema caused by nickel and evaluated by quantitative exposure assessment. Contact Dermatitis. 2011;64:32–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Julander A, Skare L, Mulder M, Grander M, Vahter M, Liden C. Skin deposition of nickel, cobalt, and chromium in production of gas turbines and space propulsion components. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010;54:340–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liden C, Skare L, Lind B, Nise G, Vahter M. Assessment of skin exposure to nickel, chromium and cobalt by acid wipe sampling and ICP-MS. Contact Dermatitis. 2006;54:233–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liden C, Skare L, Nise G, Vahter M. Deposition of nickel, chromium, and cobalt on the skin in some occupations - assessment by acid wipe sampling. Contact Dermatitis. 2008;58:347–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gawkrodger DJ, McLeod CW, Dobson K. Nickel skin levels in different occupations and an estimate of the threshold for reacting to a single open application of nickel in nickel-allergic subjects. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166:82–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Staton I, Ma R, Evans N, Hutchinson RW, McLeod CW, Gawkrodger DJ. Dermal nickel exposure associated with coin handling and in various occupational settings: assessment using a newly developed finger immersion method. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154:658–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Julander A, Skare L, Vahter M, Liden C. Nickel deposited on the skin-visualization by DMG test. Contact Dermatitis. 2011;64:151–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hostynek JJ. Factors determining percutaneous metal absorption. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41:327–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hostynek JJ, Dreher F, Pelosi A, Anigbogu A, Maibach HI. Human stratum corneum penetration by nickel. In vivo study of depth distribution after occlusive application of the metal as powder. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 2001;5:10.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Larese F, Gianpietro A, Venier M, Maina G, Renzi N. In vitro percutaneous absorption of metal compounds. Toxicol Lett. 2007;170:49–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Banfield CC, Basketter DA, Powell SM. Cutaneous reactivity of the hands in nickel-sensitive patients with hand eczema. Contact Dermatitis. 1998;38:316–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kezic S, Visser MJ, Verberk MM. Individual susceptibility to occupational contact dermatitis. Ind Health. 2009;47:469–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ross-Hansen K, Menne T, Johansen JD, Carlsen BC, Linneberg A, Nielsen NH, Stender S, Meldgaard M, Szecsi PB, Thyssen JP. Nickel reactivity and filaggrin null mutations–evaluation of the filaggrin bypass theory in a general population. Contact Dermatitis. 2011;64:24–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thyssen JP, Johansen JD, Linneberg A, Menne T, Nielsen NH, Meldgaard M, Szecsi PB, Stender S, Carlsen BC. The association between null mutations in the filaggrin gene and contact sensitization to nickel and other chemicals in the general population. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:1278–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gawkrodger DJ. Nickel dermatitis: how much nickel is safe? Contact Dermatitis. 1996;35:267–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thyssen JP, Linneberg A, Menne T, Johansen JD. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population–prevalence and main findings. Contact Dermatitis. 2007;57:287–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nakada T, Iijima M, Nakayama H, Maibach HI. Role of ear piercing in metal allergic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 1997;36:233–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nielsen NH, Menne T. Nickel sensitization and ear piercing in an unselected Danish population. Glostrup allergy study. Contact Dermatitis. 1993;29:16–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shah M, Lewis FM, Gawkrodger DJ. Prognosis of occupational hand dermatitis in metalworkers. Contact Dermatitis. 1996;34:27–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liden C. Legislative and preventive measures related to contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 2001;44:65–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Thyssen JP, Uter W, McFadden J, Menne T, Spiewak R, Vigan M, Gimenez-Arnau A, Liden C. The EU nickel directive revisited–future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy. Contact Dermatitis. 2011;64:121–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Thyssen JP, Johansen JD. Mobile phones are now covered by the European Union nickel directive. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;61:56–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Garg S, Thyssen JP, Uter W, Schnuch A, Johansen JD, Menne T, Belloni Fortina A, Statham B, Gawkrodger DJ. Nickel allergy following European Union regulation in Denmark, Germany, Italy and the U.K. Br J Dermatol. 2013;169:854–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jensen CS, Lisby S, Baadsgaard O, Volund A, Menne T. Decrease in nickel sensitization in a Danish schoolgirl population with ears pierced after implementation of a nickel-exposure regulation. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146:636–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Schnuch A, Uter W. Decrease in nickel allergy in Germany and regulatory interventions. Contact Dermatitis. 2003;49:107–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schnuch A, Schwitulla J. Decrease in nickel allergy in women after the second EU nickel directive. Contact Dermatitis. 2013;69:253–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Thyssen JP, Johansen JD, Menne T, Nielsen NH, Linneberg A. Nickel allergy in Danish women before and after nickel regulation. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2259–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Biesterbos J, Yazar K, Liden C. Nickel on the Swedish market: follow-up 10 years after entry into force of the EU nickel directive. Contact Dermatitis. 2010;63:333–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jensen P, Johansen JD, Zachariae C, Menne T, Thyssen JP. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones–a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 2011;65:354–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hamann D, Scheman AJ, Jacob SE. Nickel exposure from keys: alternatives for protection and prevention. Dermatitis. 2013;24:186–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Thyssen JP, Menne T, Johansen JD. Identification of metallic items that caused nickel dermatitis in Danish patients. Contact Dermatitis. 2010;63:151–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Meding B, Swanbeck G. Predictive factors for hand eczema. Contact Dermatitis. 1990;23:154–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Menne T, Borgan O, Green A. Nickel allergy and hand dermatitis in a stratified sample of the Danish female population: an epidemiological study including a statistic appendix. Acta Derm Venereol. 1982;62:35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Peltonen L. Nickel sensitivity in the general population. Contact Dermatitis. 1979;5:27–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Boonstra MB, Christoffers WA, Coenraads PJ, Schuttelaar ML. Patch test results of hand eczema patients: relation to clinical types. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015;29:940–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nilsson EJ, Knutsson A. Atopic dermatitis, nickel sensitivity and xerosis as risk factors for hand eczema in women. Contact Dermatitis. 1995;33:401–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bryld LE, Agner T, Menne T. Relation between vesicular eruptions on the hands and tinea pedis, atopic dermatitis and nickel allergy. Acta Derm Venereol. 2003;83:186–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nielsen NH, Linneberg A, Menne T, Madsen F, Frolund L, Dirksen A, Jorgensen T. The association between contact allergy and hand eczema in 2 cross-sectional surveys 8 years apart. Contact Dermatitis. 2002;47:71–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mortz CG, Lauritsen JM, Bindslev-Jensen C, Andersen KE. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense adolescence cohort study on atopic diseases and dermatitis (TOACS). Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82:359–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mortz CG, Bindslev-Jensen C, Andersen KE. Hand eczema in the Odense adolescence cohort study on atopic diseases and dermatitis (TOACS): prevalence, incidence and risk factors from adolescence to adulthood. Br J Dermatol. 2014;171:313–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Josefson A, Farm G, Stymne B, Meding B. Nickel allergy and hand eczema—a 20-year follow up. Contact Dermatitis. 2006;55:286–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Josefson A, Farm G, Magnuson A, Meding B. Nickel allergy as risk factor for hand eczema: a population-based study. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160:828–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gumulka M, Matura M, Liden C, Kettelarij JA, Julander A. Nickel exposure when working out in the gym. Acta Derm Venereol. 2015;95:247–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Maridet C, Atge B, Amici JM, Taieb A, Milpied B. The electronic cigarette: the new source of nickel contact allergy of the 21st century? Contact Dermatitis. 2015;73:49–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dickel H, Kuss O, Schmidt A, Diepgen TL. Occupational relevance of positive standard patch-test results in employed persons with an initial report of an occupational skin disease. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2002;75:423–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Skoet R, Olsen J, Mathiesen B, Iversen L, Johansen JD, Agner T. A survey of occupational hand eczema in Denmark. Contact Dermatitis. 2004;51:159–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Liden C, Rondell E, Skare L, Nalbanti A. Nickel release from tools on the Swedish market. Contact Dermatitis. 1998;39:127–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Thyssen JP, Jensen P, Liden C, Julander A, Jellesen MS, Menne T, Johansen JD. Assessment of nickel and cobalt release from 200 unused hand-held work tools for sale in Denmark - sources of occupational metal contact dermatitis? Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:4663–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Thyssen JP, Milting K, Bregnhoj A, Sosted H, Duus Johansen J, Menne T. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;61:281–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kickinger-Lorsch A, Bruckner T, Mahler V. Nickel and cobalt release from metal alloys of tools–a current analysis in Germany. Contact Dermatitis. 2015;73:289–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Friis UF, Menne T, Jellesen MS, Moller P, Verdingovas V, Jensen TR, Thyssen JP, Johansen JD. Allergic nickel dermatitis caused by playing the guitar: case report and assessment of nickel release from guitar strings. Contact Dermatitis. 2012;67:101–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lei U, Zachariae C, Thyssen JP. Occupational hazards in diagnosing pigmented lesions: nickel release from hand-held tools. Contact Dermatitis. 2015;73:194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kettelarij JA, Liden C, Axen E, Julander A. Cobalt, nickel and chromium release from dental tools and alloys. Contact Dermatitis. 2013;70:3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Milheiro A, Kleverlaan C, Muris J, Feilzer A, Pallav P. Nickel release from orthodontic retention wires-the action of mechanical loading and pH. Dent Mater. 2012;28:548–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Erfani B, Liden C, Midander K. Short and frequent skin contact with nickel. Contact Dermatitis. 2015;73:222–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Liden C, Skare L, Vahter M. Release of nickel from coins and deposition onto skin from coin handling–comparing euro coins and SEK. Contact Dermatitis. 2008;59:31–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bangsgaard N, Thyssen JP, Hald M. Occupational hand eczema caused by nickel allergy and semi-quantified by dimethylglyoxime testing of the skin. Contact Dermatitis. 2015;73:65–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Liden C, Carter S. Nickel release from coins. Contact Dermatitis. 2001;44:160–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nestle FO, Speidel H, Speidel MO. Metallurgy: high nickel release from 1- and 2-euro coins. Nature. 2002;419:132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Thyssen JP, Gawkrodger DJ, White IR, Julander A, Menne T, Liden C. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis: a review. Contact Dermatitis. 2013;68:3–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fournier PG, Govers TR. Contamination by nickel, copper and zinc during the handling of euro coins. Contact Dermatitis. 2003;48:181–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zhai H, Chew AL, Bashir SJ, Reagan KE, Hostynek JJ, Maibach HI. Provocative use test of nickel coins in nickel-sensitized subjects and controls. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:311–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ingber A, Klein S, David M. The nickel released from jewelry in Israel and its clinical relevance. Contact Dermatitis. 1998;39:195–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gawkrodger DJ, Cook SW, Fell GS, Hunter JA. Nickel dermatitis: the reaction to oral nickel challenge. Br J Dermatol. 1986;115:33–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nielsen GD, Jepsen LV, Jorgensen PJ, Grandjean P, Brandrup F. Nickel-sensitive patients with vesicular hand eczema: oral challenge with a diet naturally high in nickel. Br J Dermatol. 1990;122:299–308.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Basketter DA, Angelini G, Ingber A, Kern PS, Menne T. Nickel, chromium and cobalt in consumer products: revisiting safe levels in the new millennium. Contact Dermatitis. 2003;49:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Thyssen JP, Menne T, Liden C, Julander A, Jensen P, Jakobsen SS, Soballe K, Gotfredsen K, Jellesen MS, Johansen JD. Cobalt release from implants and consumer items and characteristics of cobalt sensitized patients with dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 2011;66:113–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Thyssen JP, Johansen JD, Carlsen BC, Menne T. Prevalence of nickel and cobalt allergy among female patients with dermatitis before and after Danish government regulation: a 23-year retrospective study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;61:799–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Uter W, Gefeller O, Geier J, Schnuch A. Contact sensitization to cobalt–multifactorial analysis of risk factors based on long-term data of the information network of departments of dermatology. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;71:326–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Thyssen JP, Johansen JD, Jellesen MS, Moller P, Sloth JJ, Zachariae C, Menne T. Consumer leather exposure: an unrecognized cause of cobalt sensitization. Contact Dermatitis. 2013;69:276–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bregnbak D, Thyssen JP, Zachariae C, Menne T, Johansen JD. Association between cobalt allergy and dermatitis caused by leather articles–a questionnaire study. Contact Dermatitis. 2015;72:106–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Uter W, Ramsch C, Aberer W, Ayala F, Balato A, Beliauskiene A, Fortina AB, Bircher A, Brasch J, Chowdhury MM, Coenraads PJ, Schuttelaar ML, Cooper S, Corradin MT, Elsner P, English JS, Fartasch M, Mahler V, Frosch PJ, Fuchs T, Gawkrodger DJ, Gimenez-Arnau AM, Green CM, Horne HL, Jolanki R, King CM, Krecisz B, Kiec-Swierczynska M, Ormerod AD, Orton DI, Peserico A, Rantanen T, Rustemeyer T, Sansom JE, Simon D, Statham BN, Wilkinson M, Schnuch A. The European baseline series in 10 European countries, 2005/2006–results of the European surveillance system on contact allergies (ESSCA). Contact Dermatitis. 2009;61:31–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fischer T, Rystedt I. Cobalt allergy in hard metal workers. Contact Dermatitis. 1983;9:115–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Katsarou A, Baxevanis C, Armenaka M, Volonakis M, Balamotis A, Papamihail M. Study of persistence and loss of patch test reactions to dichromate and cobalt. Contact Dermatitis. 1997;36:87–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rystedt I. Evaluation and relevance of isolated test reactions to cobalt. Contact Dermatitis. 1979;5:233–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Liden C, Bruze M, Thyssen JP and Menne T (2011) Metals. In: Contact dermatitis (Johansen JD, Lepoittevin, J-P and Frosch PJ eds) Springer: Berlin, 643-681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Pirila V. Sensitization to cobalt in pottery workers. Acta Derm Venereol. 1953;33:193–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wahlberg JE, Lindstedt G, Einarsson O. Chromium, cobalt and nickel in Swedish cement, detergents, mould and cutting oils. Berufsdermatosen. 1977;25:220–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hamann C, Hamann D, Hamann KK, Thyssen JP. Cobalt release from inexpensive earrings from Thailand and China. Contact Dermatitis. 2011;64:238–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Thyssen JP, Jellesen MS, Menne T, Liden C, Julander A, Moller P, Johansen JD. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery: has the use of cobalt replaced nickel following regulatory intervention? Contact Dermatitis. 2010;63:70–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Julander A, Hindsen M, Skare L, Liden C. Cobalt-containing alloys and their ability to release cobalt and cause dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;60:165–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Midander K, Julander A, Skare L, Liden C. Cobalt skin dose resulting from short and repetitive contact with hard metals. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;70:361–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nielsen NH, Kristiansen J, Borg L, Christensen JM, Poulsen LK, Menne T. Repeated exposures to cobalt or chromate on the hands of patients with hand eczema and contact allergy to that metal. Contact Dermatitis. 2000;43:212–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bregnbak D, Zachariae C, Thyssen JP. Occupational exposure to metallic cobalt in a baker. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;72:118–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Athavale P, Shum KW, Chen Y, Agius R, Cherry N, Gawkrodger DJ. Occupational dermatitis related to chromium and cobalt: experience of dermatologists (EPIDERM) and occupational physicians (OPRA) in the U.K. over an 11-year period (1993–2004). Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:518–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Malkonen T, Alanko K, Jolanki R, Luukkonen R, Aalto-Korte K, Lauerma A, Susitaival P. Long-term follow-up study of occupational hand eczema. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163:999–1006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Thyssen JP, Jensen P, Carlsen BC, Engkilde K, Menne T, Johansen JD. The prevalence of chromium allergy in Denmark is currently increasing as a result of leather exposure. Br J Dermatol. 2009;161:1288–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Geier J, Krautheim A, Uter W, Lessmann H, Schnuch A. Occupational contact allergy in the building trade in Germany: influence of preventive measures and changing exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2011;84:403–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wong CC, Gamboni SE, Palmer AM, Nixon RL. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis to chromium from cement: estimating the size of the problem in Australia. Australas J Dermatol. 2015;56:290–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hedberg YS, Gumulka M, Lind ML, Matura M, Liden C. Severe occupational chromium allergy despite cement legislation. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;70:321–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bregnbak D, Thyssen JP, Zachariae C, Johansen JD. Characteristics of chromium-allergic dermatitis patients prior to regulatory intervention for chromium in leather: a questionnaire study. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;71:338–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Thyssen JP, Strandesen M, Poulsen PB, Menne T, Johansen JD. Chromium in leather footwear - risk assessment of chromium allergy and dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 2012;66:279–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Zachariae CO, Agner T, Menne T. Chromium allergy in consecutive patients in a country where ferrous sulfate has been added to cement since 1981. Contact Dermatitis. 1996;35:83–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hedberg YS, Liden C, Lindberg M. Chromium dermatitis in a metal worker due to leather gloves and alkaline coolant. Acta Derm Venereol. 2016;96:104–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lim JH, Kim HS, Park YM, Lee JY, Kim HO. A case of chromium contact dermatitis due to exposure from a golf glove. Ann Dermatol. 2010;22:63–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Hedberg YS, Liden C, Odnevall Wallinder I. Chromium released from leather - I: exposure conditions that govern the release of chromium(III) and chromium(VI). Contact Dermatitis. 2015;72:206–15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mathiason F, Liden C, Hedberg YS. Chromium released from leather - II: the importance of environmental parameters. Contact Dermatitis. 2015;72:275–85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Thyssen JP, Menne T, Johansen JD. Hexavalent chromium in leather is now regulated in European Union member states to limit chromium allergy and dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;70:1–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bregnbak D, Thyssen JP, Jellesen MS, Zachariae C, Johansen JD. Experimental skin deposition of chromium on the hands following handling of samples of leather and metal. Contact Dermatitis. 2016;75:89–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Bruze M, Andersen KE. Gold–a controversial sensitizer. European environmental and contact dermatitis research group. Contact Dermatitis. 1999;40:295–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wallenhammar LM, Ortengren U, Andreasson H, Barregard L, Bjorkner B, Karlsson S, Wrangsjo K, Meding B. Contact allergy and hand eczema in Swedish dentists. Contact Dermatitis. 2000;43:192–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Bruze M, Edman B, Bjorkner B, Moller H. Clinical relevance of contact allergy to gold sodium thiosulfate. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;31:579–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Agarwal S, Gawkrodger DJ. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis to silver and colophonium in a jeweler. Am J Contact Dermat. 2002;13:74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kanerva L, Komulainen M, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from mercury. Contact Dermatitis. 1993;28:26–8.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Larese Filon F, Uderzo D, Bagnato E. Sensitization to palladium chloride: a 10-year evaluation. Am J Contact Dermat. 2003;14:78–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Munro-Ashman D, Munro DD, Hughes TH. Contact dermatitis from palladium. Trans St Johns Hosp Dermatol Soc. 1969;55:196–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Watsky KL. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis to platinum, palladium, and gold. Contact Dermatitis. 2007;57:382–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health TheoryUniversity of OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany

Personalised recommendations