Use of Metals in Our Society

Chapter

Abstract

Metals have been indispensable to society since the Bronze Age, around 5000 years ago. Their value can be seen in the size of the metal-producing industries and metal markets. This chapter outlines the production of metals and their conversion to useful products. Recycling is an integral part of this production, since all metals are 100% recyclable. The properties and applications of many metals and alloys today are described, including aluminium, beryllium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, palladium, platinum, tin, titanium and zinc. For many applications there is no viable substitute material. This chapter provides a context for the subsequent discussions later in the book of individual metal allergens and how the risks of metal allergies can be managed.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author is grateful to Prof. Thyssen and the Nickel Institute for asking him to write this chapter, and for the many helpful discussions. He would also like to thank the other metal associations for the input which they have provided.

Disclaimer

This material has been prepared for the general information of the reader and should not be used or relied upon for specific applications without first securing competent advice. Whilst the material is believed to be technically correct, Nickel Institute, its members, staff and consultants do not represent or warrant its suitability for any general or specific use and assume no liability or responsibility of any kind in connection with the information herein.

References

  1. 1.
    Agricola G. De Re Metallica. Translated by Hoover & Hoover. Project Gutenberg; 1556.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rohrig B. Smart phones, smart chemistry. ChemMatters, American Chemical Society. 2015;2015:10–12.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    British Geological Survey. World mineral production 2010–2014; 2016.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    LME. London metal exchange. 2016. http://www.lme.com.
  5. 5.
    Infomine. 2016. http://www.infomine.com.
  6. 6.
    Chemicool. 2016. http://www.chemicool.com.
  7. 7.
    NACE. International measures of prevention, application, and economics of corrosion technologies study. NACE International; 2016.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rankin J. Energy use in metal production. In High temperature processing symposium, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia, 2012; 2012.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reck BK, Graedel TE. Challenges in metal recycling. Science. 2012;337:690–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Graedel TE, Harper EM, Nassar NT, Nuss P, Reck BK. Criticality of metals and metalloids. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2015;112(14):4257–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Information

  1. 11.
    European Aluminium, http://european-aluminium.eu.
  2. 12.
    Beryllium Science and Technology Association, http://beryllium.eu.
  3. 13.
    International Chromium Development Association, http://www.icdacr.com.
  4. 14.
    Cobalt Development Institute, http://www.thecdi.com.
  5. 15.
    International Copper Association, http://copperalliance.org.
  6. 16.
    World Gold Council, http://www.gold.org.
  7. 17.
    International Stainless Steel Forum, http://www.worldstainless.org.
  8. 18.
    World Steel Association, http://www.worldsteel.org.
  9. 19.
    International Lead Association, http://www.ila-lead.org.
  10. 20.
    Minor Metals Trade Association, http://www.mmta.co.uk.
  11. 21.
    International Molybdenum Association, http://www.imoa.info.
  12. 22.
  13. 23.
    International Platinum Group Metals Association, http://ipa-news.com.
  14. 24.
    International Tin Research Institute, http://www.itri.co.uk.
  15. 25.
    International Titanium Association, http://www.titanium.org.
  16. 26.
    International Zinc Association, http://www.zinc.org.
  17. 27.
    London Metal Exchange, http://www.lme.com.
  18. 28.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, http://www.oecd.org.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nickel InstituteBrookfield PlaceM5J 2S1 TorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations