This chapter gives an overview of the history of pavements and roadways, beginning with prehistorical evidence going back more than 100,000 years. Particular attention is paid to Roman roads, which appear to have been the first established roadway network on Earth. Modern roadways, beginning with railways, are discussed in some detail, including bridges and unique structures such as the Eiffel Tower. The impact of the development of the automobile on roadways is briefly described, and the introduction of asphalt as a roadway material is discussed. The historical introduction is followed by a technical introduction to the subject of pavement design, together with the myriad of failure mechanisms that are observed in flexible pavements. This chapter concludes with a road map for using this text.
KeywordsHistorical introduction Pavement history Roman roads Ancient concrete Ancient aqueducts Suspension bridges Eiffel Tower Ancient asphalt Roadway materials Fatigue cracking Surface aging Bleeding Longitudinal cracking Pushing Reflective cracking Thermal cracking Raveling Stripping Potholing Rutting Surface wear Alligator cracking Textbook road map
- Antoninus of Piacenza. (2010). Itinerary of Antoninus. Encyclopedia Britannica.Google Scholar
- Distress Guide. (2015). Road Science. http://www.roadscience.net/services/distress-guide.
- Gillespie, H. (1992). A century of progress: The history of hot asphalt mix. National Asphalt Pavement Association.Google Scholar
- Huang, Y. (2004). Pavement analysis and design (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Keel, D. (2009). BELMARSH: Timber trackway 500 years older than Stonehenge found by archaeologists. News.Google Scholar
- Kim, R. (2009). Modeling of asphalt concrete. McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Kulsea, B., Shawver, T., & Kach, C. (1980). Making Michigan move: A history of Michigan highways and the Michigan department of transportation. Michigan Department of Transportation.Google Scholar
- Livy. (1994). Ab Urbe Condita Libri. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Maugh, T. (1994). Archeologists find world’s oldest paved road in Egypt. Los Angeles Times.Google Scholar
- MEPDG. (2008). Mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.Google Scholar
- NAPA. (2015). National Asphalt Paving Association. http://www.asphaltpavement.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=21&Itemid=41.
- NAPA-EAPA. (2011). The asphalt paving industry—A global perspective (2nd ed.). National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) and European Asphalt Pavement Association (EAPA) joint report.Google Scholar
- Papagiannakis, A., & Masad, E. (2008). Pavement design and materials. Wiley.Google Scholar
- Roberts, F., Kandhal, P., Brwon, E., Lee, D., & Kennedy, T. (1996). Hot mix asphalt materials, mixture design, and construction (2nd ed.). National Asphalt Pavement Association Research and Education Foundation.Google Scholar
- The National Stone, Sand and Gravel Association. (2013). The aggregates handbook (2nd ed.). The National Stone, Sand and Gravel Association.Google Scholar
- Wang, L. (2011). Mechanics of asphalt microstructure and micromechanics. McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Yoder, E., & Witczak, M. (1975). Principles of pavement design (2nd ed.). Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar