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Application of DHS-USB System and Ozone in Recirculating Freshwater Aquaria Towards Zero Water Exchange Aquaria

  • N. Adlin
  • M. Hatamoto
  • Y. Hirakata
  • T. Watari
  • N. Matsuura
  • T. Yamaguchi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 4)

Abstract

In recirculating aquaria system (RAS), partial water exchange was performed regularly as a part of aquaria maintenance for maintaining water quality and aesthetic beauty. To reduce large consumption of water during maintenance, this study proposed a biological nitrogen removal system consisted of down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) and an up-flow sludge blanket (USB) system with combination of ozone (O3) to simultaneously maintain nitrogen compounds concentration and remove yellow substances that implicate color in aquaria without performing water exchange. The performance of the system was evaluated using on site freshwater aquaria at ambient temperature (20–34 °C). NH3, \( {\text{NO}}_{2}^{ - } \), and \( {\text{NO}}_{3}^{ - } \) concentration detected was 0.10 ± 0.12, 0.03 ± 0.13 and 6.40 ± 7.46 mg N L−1 respectively. Color were maintained at 6 color units at phase 2 and 4 when O3 was applied continuously for 8 h per day. In addition, 16S rRNA gene of microorganisms from the bioreactors were sequenced to identify the microbial communities present. The analysis revealed that ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) such as Ca. Nitrososphaera played important role in nitrification and Thauera played important role in denitrification. Fish survived throughout the study despite no water exchange was performed for 425 days. The application of O3 in combination with DHS-USB system appeared to be a promising technology towards less-maintenance aquaria.

Keywords

Recirculating aquaria system Biological nitrogen removal Ozone 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author is grateful to the staffs of Machinaka Campus, Nagaoka City, Niigata, Japan for providing cooperation and advices throughout the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Adlin
    • 1
  • M. Hatamoto
    • 2
  • Y. Hirakata
    • 1
  • T. Watari
    • 2
  • N. Matsuura
    • 2
    • 3
  • T. Yamaguchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Science of Technology InnovationNagaoka University of TechnologyNagaokaJapan
  2. 2.Environmental Systems EngineeringNagaoka University of TechnologyNagaokaJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of Environmental Design, Institute of Science and EngineeringKanazawa UniversityKanazawaJapan

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