Stress-Related Tinnitus Treatment Protocols

New Treatment Approaches for Chronic Tinnitus-Related Distress
  • Rilana F. F. CimaEmail author


Tinnitus suffering might be understood as a function of tinnitus-related distress, which is a reaction to negative stressors and leads to a very negative and aversive state, when processes of adaptation to stressors and the efforts thereto have failed to return the organism to calmness of homeostasis. This chapter will provide an overview of this phenomenon. To provide a framework for the treatment avenues that are typically designed to relieve tinnitus-related distress, several concepts such as stress, distress, and tinnitus suffering are presented. Furthermore, an overview of theoretical frameworks in which the psychological mechanisms are predicted by these models is presented. Finally, different treatment approaches will be described, and some of the most commonly used instruments used to assess tinnitus-related distress and associated variables will be presented.



Acceptance and commitment therapy


Cognitive behavioral therapy


Conditioned response


Conditioned stimulus


Fear avoidance


Fear of Tinnitus Questionnaire


Health-related quality of life


Mindfulness-based stress reduction




Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire


Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire


Tinnitus Catastrophizing Scale


Tinnitus Disability Index


Tinnitus Fear-Avoidance Scale


Tinnitus Handicap Inventory


Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire


Tinnitus Questionnaire


Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire


Tinnitus retraining therapy


Tinnitus Severity Index


Tinnitus Functional Index


Tinnitus Severity Questionnaire


Tinnitus Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire


Unconditioned response


Unconditioned stimulus


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Behavioural Medicine Section i.s.o. UnitMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Adelante, Centre of Research and Expertise in Rehabilitation and AudiologyHoensbroekThe Netherlands

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