Stress-Related Blood Biomarkers
In the previous chapters, we presented and discussed the hormonal mechanisms of emotional stress, we also introduced stress-related psychological disorders frequently occurring in tinnitus patients, and we revealed how the daily rhythms—when disrupted by stress—could contribute to auditory pathologies such as tinnitus. Here, we want to bring the reader up to date on the topic of stress-related blood biomarkers and their possible use in the diagnostics and monitoring of tinnitus.
KeywordsTinnitus Stress Biomarkers
AJ Szczepek thankfully acknowledges the research support of Dürr Foundation, the German Tinnitus Foundation and Sonnenfeld Foundation. B. Mazurek acknowledges the support of Dürr Foundation.
- Gola H, Engler H, Sommershof A, Adenauer H, Kolassa S, Schedlowski M, Groettrup M, Elbert T, Kolassa IT (2013) Posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with an enhanced spontaneous production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. BMC Psychiatry 13:40CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hall DA, Haider H, Szczepek AJ, Lau P, Rabau S, Jones-Diette J, Londero A, Edvall NK, Cederroth CR, Mielczarek M, Fuller T, Batuecas-Caletrio A, Brueggemen P, Thompson DM, Norena A, Cima RF, Mehta RL, Mazurek B (2016) Systematic review of outcome domains and instruments used in clinical trials of tinnitus treatments in adults. Trials 17:270CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hernandez ME, Mendieta D, Perez-Tapia M, Bojalil R, Estrada-Garcia I, Estrada-Parra S, Pavon L (2013) Effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and immunomodulator on cytokines levels: an alternative therapy for patients with major depressive disorder. Clin Dev Immunol 2013:267871CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Matthews VB, Astrom MB, Chan MH, Bruce CR, Krabbe KS, Prelovsek O, Akerstrom T, Yfanti C, Broholm C, Mortensen OH, Penkowa M, Hojman P, Zankari A, Watt MJ, Bruunsgaard H, Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA (2009) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is produced by skeletal muscle cells in response to contraction and enhances fat oxidation via activation of amp-activated protein kinase. Diabetologia 52:1409–1418CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- WHO (1993) Environmental health criteria: biomarkers and risk assessment: concepts and principles. In: WHO (ed) International programme on chemical safety, vol 155. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar