Here I briefly review the major stress system of the body, an intrinsic stress system in the cochlea, how stress can be recognized in laboratory animals, and how stress can be induced in animals. Then I discuss the effects of stress on the cochlea and the auditory central nervous system. This leads to the examination of animal models of stress that is causal to or exacerbates tinnitus and briefly also how tinnitus may cause stress. I end with a discussion of behavioral tests that are used to decide whether animals have tinnitus. I also suggest that these various test procedures may cause or exaggerate signs of tinnitus.
This work was supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada.
- Brain facts (2015) A primer on the brain and nervous system. Soc Neurosci. https://www.sfn.org/public-outreach/brainfacts-dot-org
- Eggermont JJ (2013a) Noise and the brain. Experience dependent developmental and adult plasticity. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Graham CE, Vetter DE (2011) The mouse cochlea expresses a local hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal equivalent signaling system and requires corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 to establish normal hair cell innervation and cochlear sensitivity. J Neurosci 31(4):1267–1278CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Henkin RI, Knigge KM (1963) Effect of sound on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Am J Phys 204:710–714Google Scholar
- Irvine DRF (2010) Plasticity in the auditory pathway: structural organization of the descending auditory pathway. In: Rees A, Palmer AR (eds) The Oxford handbook of auditory science: the auditory brain, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 387–415Google Scholar
- Singer W, Zuccotti A, Jaumann M, Lee SC, Panford-Walsh R, Xiong H, Zimmermann U, Franz C, Geisler HS, Köpschall I, Rohbock K, Varakina K, Verpoorten S, Reinbothe T, Schimmang T, Rüttiger L, Knipper M (2013) Noise-induced inner hair cell ribbon loss disturbs central arc mobilization: a novel molecular paradigm for understanding tinnitus. Mol Neurobiol 47(1):261–279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toni R (2004) The neuroendocrine system: organization and homeostatic role. J Endocrinol Investig 27(6 Suppl):35–47Google Scholar