Beach Sand Quality and Its Associated Health Effects of Port Dickson Beaches (Malaysia): An Analysis of Beach Management Framework

  • Sarva Mangala PraveenaEmail author
  • Siti Shafiqa Shamira
  • Ahmad Zaharin Aris
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 24)


This present study investigates Escherichia coli (E.coli) contamination to indicate beach sand quality along Port Dickson coastal area and perceived health risk symptoms among beachgoers. Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analyses was used to understand the beach management framework in Port Dickson coastline. E. coli colonies in beach sand ranged from 60 cfu/100 g to 4113 cfu/100 g, the highest was found at Tanjung Gemuk and the lowest at Tanjung Tuan. This variation was due to location of the former at the sewage outlet of nearby hotels and dilution factor. Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis output has highlighted the best match between environmental trends (opportunities and threats) and internal capabilities (strengths and weakness) which can be applied to beach management in Port Dickson coastline. Thus, identification and prioritization of future multidisciplinary studies is vital to fill in the knowledge gap and address sustainable performance towards beach management in Port Dickson coastline.


Beach sand Escherichia coli Health risks SWOT Beach management 



The authors would like to thanks Microbiology Laboratory staffs, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (Universiti Putra Malaysia) for their autoclave service.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarva Mangala Praveena
    • 1
    Email author
  • Siti Shafiqa Shamira
    • 1
  • Ahmad Zaharin Aris
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental StudiesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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