Advertisement

Counting Beach Visitors: Tools, Methods and Management Applications

  • Damian MorganEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 24)

Abstract

Beach and coastal land managers have responsibility for the biophysical and human aspects pertaining to sensitive and valuable ecosystems. This responsibility presents complex management challenges that must consider, and often balance, multiple objectives concerning spatial, ecological, social, cultural, and economic elements. This process will commonly follow a strategic framework underpinned by plans designed to meet set objectives cognisant of limits set by acceptable change. This outcome requires accurate, relevant and timely data for good decision-making. One source of required data pertains to human use of beach environments. In this regard, a range of methods and tools exist to measure and assess this use. Decisions on suitable methods, tools and data collection strategies are made normally in the context of the benefits and costs associated with data collection purpose, intended data use, and the physical nature of the location of interest. For example, beach use estimates may be obtained using indicators such as vehicle numbers in beach-adjacent car parks. Counting technology may also be employed at suitable locales to measure and record traffic flow. Dedicated sampling methods may utilise aerial or land based imaging or direct-observer counts. Regardless of the methods used, information on human use of beach environments has a range of important and beach relevant purposes including assessment of environmental impacts, visitor safety management, planning for visitor amenities, and destination marketing. The chapter highlights the importance of suitable tools and methods to measure beach users for improving beach planning and management at local, regional and global levels.

References

  1. Amorim RC, Rocha A, Oliveira M, Ribeiro C (2016) Efficient delivery of forecasts to a nautical sports mobile Application with semantic data services. In: proceedings of the ninth international C* conference on Computer Science & Software Engineering, 2016. ACM, pp 7–12Google Scholar
  2. Ariza E, Jiménez JA, Sardá R (2008) A critical assessment of beach management on the Catalan coast. Ocean Coast Manag 51(2):141–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Australian Government (2016) The beach. http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/beach. Accessed 14 Sep 2016
  4. Bailey G (2004) World prehistory from the margins: the role of coastlines in human evolution. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in History and Archaeology:39–50Google Scholar
  5. Bearzi G, Agazzi S, Gonzalvo J, Costa M, Bonizzoni S, Politi E, Piroddi C, Reeves RR (2008) Overfishing and the disappearance of short-beaked common dolphins from western Greece. Endanger Species Res 5(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bedri Z, Corkery A, O'Sullivan JJ, Deering LA, Demeter K, Meijer WG, O'Hare G, Masterson B (2016) Evaluating a microbial water quality prediction model for beach management under the revised EU bathing water directive. J Environ Manag 167:49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bentz J, Lopes F, Calado H, Dearden P (2016) Sustaining marine wildlife tourism through linking limits of acceptable change and zoning in the wildlife tourism model. Mar Policy 68:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berry A, Fahey S, Meyers N (2013) Changing of the guard: adaptation options that maintain ecologically resilient sandy beach ecosystems. J Coast Res 29(4):899–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beunen R, Jaarsma CF, Kramer RN (2004) Counting of visitors in the Meijendel dunes, The Netherlands. J Coast Conserv 10(1):109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blythe J (2015) Resilience and social thresholds in small-scale fishing communities. Sustain Sci 10(1):157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bogomolova S (2017) Mechanical observation research in social marketing and beyond. In: Kubacki K, Rundle-Thiele S (eds) Formative research in social marketing. Springer, Singapore, pp 125–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buhalis D (2000) Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tour Manag 21(1):97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cervantes O, Espejel I (2008) Design of an integrated evaluation index for recreational beaches. Ocean Coast Manag 51(5):410–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chacón-Chaverri D, Eckert KL (2007) Leatherback sea turtle nesting at Gandoca Beach in Caribbean Costa Rica: management recommendations from fifteen years of conservation. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 6(1):101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coombes E, Jones A, Bateman I, Tratalos J, Gill J, Showler D, Watkinson A, Sutherland W (2009) Spatial and temporal modeling of beach use: a case study of East Anglia, UK. Coast Manag 37(1):94–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Curry GN, Koczberski G, Selwood J (2001) Cashing out, cashing in: rural change on the south coast of Western Australia. Aust Geogr 32(1):109–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. D’Antonio A, Monz C (2016) The influence of visitor use levels on visitor spatial behavior in off-trail areas of dispersed recreation use. J Environ Manag 170:79–87Google Scholar
  18. Da Silva CP (2002) Beach carrying capacity assessment: how important is it. J Coast Res 36:190–197Google Scholar
  19. Davis R Jr, Fitzgerald D (2003) Beaches and coasts. John Wiley & Sons, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  20. Deacon RT, Kolstad CD (2000) Valuing beach recreation lost in environmental accidents. J Water Resour Plan Manag 126(6):374–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duarte CM (2004) How can beaches be managed with respect to seagrass litter. In: Duarte CM, Krause-Jensen D, Greve TM (eds) European Seagrasses: an introduction to monitoring and management. M&MS Project Publisher. The M&MS Project Publisher, European Union, pp 83–84 http://imedea.uib-csic.es/icg/downloads/seagrass.pdf
  22. Dwight RH, Brinks MV, SharavanaKumar G, Semenza JC (2007) Beach attendance and bathing rates for Southern California beaches. Ocean Coast Manag 50(10):847–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferreira MA, Soares L, Andrade F (2012) Educating citizens about their coastal environments: beach profiling in the Coastwatch project. J Coast Conserv 16(4):567–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fish M, Cote I, Horrocks J, Mulligan B, Watkinson A, Jones A (2008) Construction setback regulations and sea-level rise: mitigating sea turtle nesting beach loss. Ocean Coast Manag 51(4):330–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Foley JA, DeFries R, Asner GP, Barford C, Bonan G, Carpenter SR, Chapin FS, Coe MT, Daily GC, Gibbs HK (2005) Global consequences of land use. Science 309(5734):570–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gandomi A, Haider M (2015) Beyond the hype: big data concepts, methods, and analytics. Int J Inf Manag 35(2):137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gurung TB, Thing A (2016) Fishing tourism can support Fisher’s livelihood and fish conservation in Nepal: a value chain analysis. Hydro Nepal: Journal of Water, Energy and Environment 18:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hansen AS (2016) Outdoor recreation monitoring in coastal and marine areas–an overview of Nordic experiences and knowledge. Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography:1–13Google Scholar
  29. Hockings M, Twyford K (1997) Assessment and management of beach camping impacts within Fraser Island world heritage area, south-east Queensland. Aust J Environ Manag 4(1):26–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Horwood C (2000) ‘girls who arouse dangerous passions’: women and bathing, 1900-39. Women’s History Review 9(4):653–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. James RJ (2000) From beaches to beach environments: linking the ecology, human-use and management of beaches in Australia. Ocean Coast Manag 43(6):495–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jang SW, Lee SK, Kim DH, Chung YH, Yoon HJ (2015) Application of remote monitoring to overcome the temporal and spatial limitations of beach litter survey. In: Kim T-h (ed) Advanced science and technology letters, Yeosu, Korea, May 21-23 2015. SERSC, pp 67–72. doi: http://dx.doi.Org/10.14257/astl.2015.95.13
  33. Jentoft S (2000) Co-managing the coastal zone: is the task too complex? Ocean Coast Manag 43(6):527–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kennish MJ (2005) Estuaries, anthropogenic impacts. In: Schwartz ML (ed) Encyclopedia of coastal science. Springer, Netherlands, pp 434–436Google Scholar
  35. King P, McGregor A (2012) Who's counting: an analysis of beach attendance estimates and methodologies in southern California. Ocean Coast Manag 58:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lemahieu A, Blaison A, Crochelet E, Bertrand G, Pennober G, Soria M (2017) Human-shark interactions: the case study of Reunion island in the south-west Indian Ocean. Ocean Coast Manag 136:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maguire GS, Miller KK, Weston MA, Young K (2011) Being beside the seaside: beach use and preferences among coastal residents of south-eastern Australia. Ocean Coast Manag 54(10):781–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McLachlan A, Defeo O, Jaramillo E, Short AD (2013) Sandy beach conservation and recreation: guidelines for optimising management strategies for multi-purpose use. Ocean Coast Manag 71:256–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Micallef A, Williams A (2002) Theoretical strategy considerations for beach management. Ocean Coast Manag 45(4):261–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Micallef A, Williams AT, Radic M, Ergin A (2004) Application of a novel bathing area evaluation technique—a case study of Croatian island beaches. World Leisure Journal 46(4):4–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moran K, Webber J (2014) Leisure-related injuries at the beach: an analysis of lifeguard incident report forms in New Zealand, 2007–12. Int J Inj Control Saf Promot 21(1):68–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Morgan D (2006) Surf beach risk and safety. In: Wilks J, Pendergast D, Leggat P (eds) Tourism in turbulent times: towards safe experiences for visitors. Elsevier, London, pp 217–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Morgan D (2016) Development of a method to estimate and predict beach visitation. Tour Mar Environ.  https://doi.org/10.3727/154427316X693234
  44. Morgan D, Ozanne-Smith J (2013) Development and trial of a water exposure measure of estimated drowning risk for surf bathers. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education 7(2):116–135Google Scholar
  45. Morgan D, Ozanne-Smith J (2015) Measurement of a drowning incidence rate combining direct observation of an exposed population with mortality statistics. Int J Inj Control Saf Promot 22(3):209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Orams MB (2002) Feeding wildlife as a tourism attraction: a review of issues and impacts. Tour Manag 23(3):281–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Paterson R (1990) Effects of long-term anti-shark measures on target and non-target species in Queensland, Australia. Biol Conserv 52(2):147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pendleton L, Kildow J, Rote J (2006) The non-market value of beach recreation in California. Shore and Beach 74(2):34Google Scholar
  49. Pikora T, Braham R, Hill C, Mills C (2011) Wet and wild: results from a pilot study assessing injuries among recreational water users in Western Australia. Int J Inj Control Saf Promot 18(2):119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pilkey OH, Neal WJ, Cooper JAG, Kelley JT (2011) The world's beaches: a global guide to the science of the shoreline. Univ of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  51. Prabpriree M, Maneenetr T, Siriwong P, Yaipool K (2016) Implementing Sustainable Beach tourism management framework for the Royal Coast Cluster, Thailand. Asian Social Science 12(8):146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rico-Amoros AM, Olcina-Cantos J, Sauri D (2009) Tourist land use patterns and water demand: evidence from the Western Mediterranean. Land Use Policy 26(2):493–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Roca E, Villares M (2008) Public perceptions for evaluating beach quality in urban and semi-natural environments. Ocean Coast Manag 51(4):314–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Saleh SAM, Suandi SA, Ibrahim H (2015) Recent survey on crowd density estimation and counting for visual surveillance. Eng Appl Artif Intell 41:103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schlacher TA, Schoeman DS, Dugan J, Lastra M, Jones A, Scapini F, McLachlan A (2008) Sandy beach ecosystems: key features, sampling issues, management challenges and climate change impacts. Mar Ecol 29(s1):70–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Short A (2016) OzCoasts: Australian online coastal information. Geoscience Australia. http://www.ozcoasts.gov.au/conceptual_mods/beaches/beach_intro.jsp Google Scholar
  57. Smith MKS, Kruger N, Murray TS (2015) Aerial surveys conducted along the garden route coastline, South Africa, to determine patterns in shore fishing effort. Koedoe 57(1):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Smith RA (1991) Beach resorts: a model of development evolution. Landsc Urban Plan 21(3):189–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Spain SB (1999) Florida Beach access: nothing but wet sand? Journal of Land Use & Environmental Law 15(1):167–193Google Scholar
  60. Staines C, Morgan D, Ozanne-Smith J (2005) Threats to tourist and visitor safety at beaches in Victoria, Australia. Tour Mar Environ 1(2):97–105Google Scholar
  61. Stanton WR, Janda M, Baade PD, Anderson P (2004) Primary prevention of skin cancer: a review of sun protection in Australia and internationally. Health Promot Int 19(3):369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sunger N, Teske SS, Nappier S, Haas CN (2012) Recreational use assessment of water-based activities, using time-lapse construction cameras. J Expo Sci and Environ Epidemiol 22(3):281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Trochim WM (2001) Research methods knowledge base. Atomic Dog, Cincinnati, OhioGoogle Scholar
  64. UNEP (2016) Impacts of tourism. United Nations Environment Program. http://www.unep.org/. Accessed 22 Oct 2016Google Scholar
  65. Valdemoro HI, Jiménez JA (2006) The influence of shoreline dynamics on the use and exploitation of Mediterranean tourist beaches. Coast Manag 34(4):405–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wächter J, Babeyko A, Fleischer J, Häner R, Hammitzsch M, Kloth A, Lendholt M (2012) Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 12(6):1923–1935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wilks J, Dawes P, Williamson B (2005) Patrol smart 7/52: Queensland's integrated surf life saving program. Australian Journal of Emergency Management 20(1):38Google Scholar
  68. Wolch J, Zhang J (2004) Beach recreation, cultural diversity and attitudes toward nature. J Leis Res 36(3):414Google Scholar
  69. Wong PP (2000) Coastal tourism in Southeast Asia: research from the environmental perspective. In: Chon KS (ed) Tourism in Southeast Asia: a new direction, Haworth hospitality Press, London. The Haworth Hospitality Press, Binghamton, pp 107–121Google Scholar
  70. Yasué M, Dearden P (2006) The potential impact of tourism development on habitat availability and productivity of Malaysian plovers Charadrius peronii. J Appl Ecol 43(5):978–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federation Business SchoolFederation University AustraliaGippslandAustralia

Personalised recommendations