State-of-the-Art Innovative Beach Management Tools from the Tree of Science Platform

  • Camilo M. BoteroEmail author
  • Omar Cervantes
  • Charles W. Finkl
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 24)


A State-of-the-Art of scientific literature related with innovative beach management tools is presented by utilizing the Tree of Science® tool (TOS) using the following two word combinations: (1) beach and carrying capacity (45 papers); (2) beach and certification, and (3) blue flag (30 papers). Papers were classified by ToS in two Tree of Sciences, one for carrying capacity and the other for beach certifications. After joining references in both trees, 68 papers were classified in roots (high input degree; n = 15), trunks (high intermediation degree; n = 19) and leaves (high output degree; n = 34). The Journal of Coastal Research was the most relevant journal, with 18 articles published (26%), followed by Ocean and Coastal Management (n = 14; 21%) and Tourism Management (n = 9; 13%), which made Elsevier the most relevant publisher in this topic (n = 29; 43%). About authors, A.T. Williams was the most relevant author, with articles in roots, trunks and leaves and participation in seven of papers revised, closely followed by J.A. Jimenez and L. Pereira. Analysis of countries of authors’ affiliation shows a shared leading of Brazil (n = 45; 20%) and Spain (n = 44; 20%), far followed by UK (N = 26; 12%), USA (n = 22; 10%) and Portugal (n = 18; 8%). A general overview identifies two growing ToS linked to innovative beach management tools, with multiple interlaced branches, which have some strong references in trunks and leaves. Finally, a prospective analysis from branches suggest that the scientific community is researching around five beach management tools: Integrated Information Tool, Biological Carrying Capacity, Recreational Carrying Capacity, Certification Schemes, Beach’s Uses. If more attention is putted on these branches, in the near future they will be strong and healthy ToS in the forest of beach management.


  1. Ariza E, Jiménez JA, Sardá R (2008) A critical assessment of beach management on the Catalan coast. Ocean Coast Manag 51:141–160. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ariza E, Jiménez JA, Sardá R (2012) An interdisciplinary analysis of beach management in the Catalan Coast (North-Western Mediterranean). Coast Manag 40:442–459. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boevers J (2008) Assessing the utility of beach Ecolabels for use by local management. Coast Manag 36:524–531. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Botero CM, Williams AT, Cabrera JA (2014) Advances in beach management in Latin America: an overview from certification schemes. Environ Manag Gov Adv Coast Mar Resour Coast Res Libr.
  5. Botero CM (2013) Evaluación de los esquemas de certificación de playas en América Latina y propuesta de un mecanismo para su homologación. Universidad de CádizGoogle Scholar
  6. Bustard HR, Tognetti KP (1969) Green sea turtles: a discrete simulation of density-dependent population regulation. Science 163(80):939–941. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Capacci S, Scorcu AE, Vici L (2015) Seaside tourism and eco-labels: the economic impact of blue flags. Tour Manag 47:88–96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cumberbatch J, Moses J (2011) Social carrying capacity in beach management in Barbados. J Coast Res 61:14–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dadon JR (2005) Playas y Balnearios de Calidad: Getión Turística y Ambiental. Secretaria de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable de la Nación, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  10. De Ruyck MC, Soares AG, McLachlan A (1997) Social carrying capacity as a management tool for Sandy beaches. J Coast Res 13:822–830Google Scholar
  11. de Sousa R, Pereira L, Silva N et al (2011) Recreational carrying capacity of three Amazon macrotidal beaches during the peak vacation season. J Coast Res 64:1292–1296Google Scholar
  12. de Sousa RC, Pereira LCC, da Costa RM, Jiménez JA (2014) Tourism carrying capacity on estuarine beaches in the Brazilian Amazon region. J Coast Res 70:545–550. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de Souza Filho JR, Santos RC, Silva IR, Elliff CI (2014) Evaluation of recreational quality, carrying capacity and ecosystem services supplied by sandy beaches of the municipality of Camaçari, northern coast of Bahia, Brazil. J Coast Res 70:527–532. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de Souza Filho JR, Silva IR, Ferreira DF (2011) Socio-environment analysis as a tool for coastal management: the case of Maraú Peninsula, Bahia, Brazil. J Coast Res 61:446–451. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Defeo O, McLachlan A (2013) Global patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: species richness, abundance, biomass and body size. Geomorphology 199:106–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elliott M, Burdon D, Hemingway KL, Apitz SE (2007) Estuarine, coastal and marine ecosystem restoration: confusing management and science – a revision of concepts. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 74:349–366. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fernandez-Nunez M, Díaz-Cuevas P, Ojeda J et al (2015) Multipurpose line for mapping coastal information using a data model: the Andalusian coast (Spain). J Coast Conserv 19:461–474. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Font X (2002) Environmental certification in tourism and hospitality: progress, process and prospects. Tour Manag 23:197–205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fraguell RM, Martí C, Pintó J, Coenders G (2016) After over 25 years of accrediting beaches, has blue flag contributed to sustainable management? J Sustain Tour 24:882–903. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gilburn AS (2012) Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 107:81–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gore S (2007) Framework development for beach management in the British Virgin Islands. Ocean Coast Manag 50:732–753. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guimarães MHE, Mascarenhas A, Sousa C, et al (2012) The impact of water quality changes on the socio-economic system of the Guadiana estuary: an assessment of management options. Ecol Soc 17:art38. doi:
  23. Halkos G, Matsiori S (2012) Determinants of willingness to pay for coastal zone quality improvement. J Socio Econ 41:391–399. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Houston JR (2013) The economic value of beaches – a 2013 update. Shore Beach 81:3–10Google Scholar
  25. Huamantinco Cisneros MA, Revollo Sarmiento NV, Delrieux CA et al (2016) Beach carrying capacity assessment through image processing tools for coastal management. Ocean Coast Manag 130:138–147. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Islabão CA, Odebrecht C (2015) Influence of salinity on the growth of Akashiwo sanguinea and Prorocentrum micans (Dinophyta) under acclimated conditions and abrupt changes. Mar Biol Res 11:965–973. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jiménez JA, Osorio A, Marino-Tapia I et al (2007) Beach recreation planning using video-derived coastal state indicators. Coast Eng 54:507–521. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jurado E, Dantas AG, Pereira C, Silva D (2009) Coastal zone management: tools for establishing a set of indicators to assess beach carrying capacity (Costa del sol – Spain). J Coast Res 56:1125–1129Google Scholar
  29. Lucrezi S, Saayman M (2015) Beachgoers’ demands vs. blue flag aims in South Africa. J Coast Res 316:1478–1488. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lucrezi S, Saayman M, Van der Merwe P (2015) Managing beaches and beachgoers: lessons from and for the blue flag award. Tour Manag 48:211–230. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lucrezi S, Saayman M, Van der Merwe P (2016) An assessment tool for sandy beaches: a case study for integrating beach description, human dimension, and economic factors to identify priority management issues. Ocean Coast Manag 121:1–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manning RE, Lawsson SR (2002) Carrying capacity as informed judgment: the values of science and the science of values. Environ Manag 30:157–168. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Manno G, Anfuso G, Messina E et al (2016) Decadal evolution of coastline armouring along the Mediterranean Andalusia littoral (South of Spain). Ocean Coast Manag 124:84–99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marin V, Palmisani F, Ivaldi R et al (2009) Users’ perception analysis for sustainable beach management in Italy. Ocean Coast Manag 52:268–277. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McDermid KJ, Lefebvre JA, Balazs GH (2015) Nonnative seashore Paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum (Poaceae), consumed by Hawaiian Green Sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas ): evidence for nutritional benefits 1. Pac Sci 69:48–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McKenna J, Williams AT, Cooper JAG (2011) Blue flag or red herring: do beach awards encourage the public to visit beaches? Tour Manag 32:576–588. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McLachlan A, Defeo O, Jaramillo E, Short AD (2013) Sandy beach conservation and recreation: guidelines for optimising management strategies for multi-purpose use. Ocean Coast Manag 71:256–268. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Micallef A, Williams AT (2004) Application of a novel approach to beach classification in the Maltese islands. Ocean Coast Manag 47:225–242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mir-Gual M, Pons GX, Martín-Prieto JA, Rodríguez-Perea A (2015) A critical view of the blue flag beaches in Spain using environmental variables. Ocean Coast Manag 105:106–115. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Morgan R (1999) A novel, user-based rating system for tourist beaches. Tour Manag 20:393–410. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nahman A, Rigby D (2008) Valuing blue flag status and estuarine water quality in Margate, South Africa. S Afr J Econ 76:721–737. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nel R, Punt AE, Hughes GR (2013) Are coastal protected areas always effective in achieving population recovery for Nesting Sea turtles? PLoS One 8:e63525. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nelson C, Botterill D (2002) Evaluating the contribution of beach quality awards to the local tourism industry in Wales—the green coast award. Ocean Coast Manag 45:157–170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nelson C, Morgan R, Williams A, Wood J (2000) Beach awards and management. Ocean Coast Manag 43:87–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Noguera LA, Botero CM, Zielinski S (2012) Selección por recurrencia de los parámetros de calidad ambiental y turística de los esquemas de certificación de playas en América Latina. Rev Del Inst Investig Trop 7:59–68. ISSN 1794-161XGoogle Scholar
  46. Parrish FA, Howell EA, Antonelis GA et al (2012) Estimating the carrying capacity of French frigate shoals for the endangered Hawaiian monk seal using Ecopath with Ecosim. Mar Mamm Sci 28:522–541. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pereira LCC, Jiménez JA, Medeiros C, Costa RM da (2003) The influence of the environmental status of casa Caiada and Rio Doce beaches (NE-Brazil) on beaches users. Ocean Coast Manag 46:1011–1030. doi:
  48. Pereira da Silva C, Nogueira Mendes R, Moutinho G et al (2016) Beach carrying capacity and protected areas: management issues in Arrábida Natural Park, Portugal. J Coast Res 75:680–684. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pessoa RMC, Pereira LCC, Sousa RC et al (2013) Recreational carrying capacity of an Amazon macrotidal beach during vacation periods. J Coast Res 65:1027–1032. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pessoa RMC, Pereira LCC, Sousa RC, Costa RM (2016) Water quality during the recreational high season for a Macrotidal Beach (Ajuruteua, Pará, Brazil). J Coast Res 75:1222–1226. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Phillips MR, House C (2009) An evaluation of priorities for beach tourism: case studies from South Wales, UK. Tour Manag 30:176–183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. PMRC (2007) Normas Técnicas para certificación de Playas Turísticas en la Faja Costera. QuitoGoogle Scholar
  53. Quintela A, Calado H, Silva CP da (2009) Bathing users perceptions and expectations of São Miguel (Azores) bathing areas -a pilot study. J Coast Res 56:1145–1149Google Scholar
  54. Rasoolimanesh SM, Jaafar M, Marzuki A, Mohamad D (2016) How visitor and environmental characteristics influence perceived crowding. Asia Pac J Tour Res 21:952–967. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Robledo-Giraldo S, Duque-Méndez ND, Zuluaga-Giraldo J (2013) Difusión de productos a través de redes sociales: una revisión bibliográfica utilizando la teoría de grafos. Respuestas 18:28–42Google Scholar
  56. Robledo-Giraldo S, Osorio-Zuluaga GA, López-Espinosa C (2014) Networking en pequeña empresa: una revisión bibliográfica utilizando la teoria de grafos. Rev Vinculos 11:49 ST-Teoria de GrafosGoogle Scholar
  57. Roca E, Villares M, Ortego MI (2009) Assessing public perceptions on beach quality according to beach users’ profile: a case study in the Costa Brava (Spain). Tour Manag 30:598–607. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sardá R, Valls JF, Pintó J et al (2015) Towards a new integrated beach management system: the ecosystem-based management system for beaches. Ocean Coast Manag 118:167–177. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Saveriades A (2000) Establishing the social tourism carrying capacity for the tourist resorts of the east coast of the Republic of Cyprus. Tour Manag 21:147–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Segarra-Oña M-V, Peiró-Signes Á, Verma R, Miret-Pastor L (2012) Does environmental certification help the economic performance of hotels? Cornell Hosp Q 53:242–256. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Silva CP (2002) Beach carrying capacity assessment: how important is it? J Coast Res 197:190–197Google Scholar
  62. Silva IR, de Souza Filho JR, Ferreira DF, Gustavo Freitas Papi A (2011) Carrying capacity analysis of Praia do Forte Beach, Brazil. J Coast Res 61:440–445. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Silva JS, Leal MMV, Araújo MCB et al (2008a) Spatial and temporal patterns of use of Boa Viagem Beach, Northeast Brazil. J Coast Res 1:79–86. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Silva JSJS, Barbosa SCTSCT, Costa MFMF (2008b) Flag items as a tool for monitoring solid wastes from users on urban beaches. J Coast Res 24:890–898. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Silva SF, Ferreira JC (2013) Beach carrying capacity: the physical and social analysis at Costa de Caparica, Portugal. J Coast Res 65:1039–1044. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Silva IR d, Pereira LCC, Trindade WN et al (2013) Natural and anthropogenic processes on the recreational activities in urban Amazon beaches. Ocean Coast Manag 76:75–84. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Simeone S, Palombo AGL, Guala I (2012) Impact of frequentation on a Mediterranean embayed beach: implication on carrying capacity. Ocean Coast Manag 62:9–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Smyth RL, Watzin MC, Manning RE (2007) Defining acceptable levels for ecological indicators: an approach for considering social values. Environ Manag 39:301–315. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tiwari M, Balazs G, Hargrove S (2010) Estimating carrying capacity at the green turtle nesting beach of East Island, French Frigate shoals. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 419:289–294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tudor DT, Williams AT (2006) A rationale for beach selection by the public on the coast of Wales, UK. Area 38:153–164. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tudor DT, Williams AT (2003) Perception and opinion of Visible Beach aesthetic pollution: the utilisation of photography. J Coast Res 19:1104–1110Google Scholar
  72. Valdemoro HI, Jiménez JA (2006) The influence of shoreline dynamics on the use and exploitation of Mediterranean tourist beaches. Coast Manag 34:405–423. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Vousdoukas MI, Velegrakis AF, Kontogianni A, Makrykosta E-N (2009) Implications of the cementation of beach sediments for the recreational use of the beach. Tour Manag 30:544–552. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Williams AT, Micallef A (2009) Beach management: principles and practice. Earthscan Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  75. Zacarias DA, Williams AT, Newton A (2011) Recreation carrying capacity estimations to support beach management at Praia de Faro, Portugal. Appl Geogr 31:1075–1081. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zielinski S, Botero C (2015) Are eco-labels sustainable? Beach certification schemes in Latin America and the Caribbean. J Sustain Tour 23:1550–1572. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of LawUniversidad Sergio ArboledaSanta MartaColombia
  2. 2.Facultad de Ciencias MarinasUniversidad de ColimaManzanilloMexico
  3. 3.Coastal Education and Research Foundation (CERF)FletcherUSA
  4. 4.Department of GeosciencesFlorida Atlantic UniversityBoca RatonUSA

Personalised recommendations