Advertisement

Assessment of Potential Impacts in Tourism of the Increase in the Average Sea Level

  • Pedro Gomes
  • Francisco GutierresEmail author
  • Jorge Rocha
  • Ana Cláudia Teodoro
Chapter
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 24)

Abstract

Climate change and its effects are inevitable according to many authors; policies should be assumed regarding their mitigation and adaptation. Some economic sectors may suffer negative impacts, being tourism one with greater potential for impact. The increase in average sea level is one of the potential effects of climate change that can have consequences on tourism, particularly in the travel destinations that include coastal regions. The main objective of this work is to propose an approach for the assessment of potential impacts of the increase in the average sea level of tourism in a coastal area with a tripartite methodology. This methodology includes the assessment of physical vulnerability of the coast, including a coastal vulnerability index composed by nine physical variables – elevation, distance to shore, tide amplitude, significant wave weight, erosion/accretion rates, geology, geomorphology, ground cover vegetation and anthropogenic actions – followed by a quantification of coastal recession, based on the Bruun rule and the data of Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), on the rise in average sea level. Finally, it is estimated the total economic value of an area of recreation and tourism, based on the travel cost method. The proposed methodology was applied to a case study in the Portuguese coast, corresponding to the beach of São Jacinto, in Aveiro.

Keywords

Coastal area Sea level rise Vulnerability Bruun rule Travel cost 

References

  1. Abuodha P, Woodroffe CD (2006) International assessments of the vulnerability of the coastal zone to climate change, including an australian perspective. Final report. Sidney: australian greenhouse office. Available via Web. http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/impacts/publications/pubs/coastal-international.pdf. Accessed 12 Oct 2008
  2. Boruff BJ, Emrich C, Cutter SL (2005) Erosion Hazard vulnerability of US coastal counties. J Coast Res 215:932–942Google Scholar
  3. Bruun PM (1962) American Society of Civil Engineers. J Waterway Div Reston VA 88 (WW1):117–130Google Scholar
  4. Bruun P (1988) The Bruun rule of erosion by sea-level rise: a discussion on large scale two- and three dimensional usages. J Coast Res 4(4):627–648Google Scholar
  5. Clawson M, Knetsch J (1966) Economics of outdoor recreation. John Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  6. Coelho C, Veloso-Gomes F (2004) Crosshore beach profile models – application to aveiro coast conducted at the proceedings of the 8th international coastal symposium in itajaí, SC – Brazil. J Coastal Res, SI 39Google Scholar
  7. Coelho C, Silva R, Veloso-Gomes F, Taveira Pinto F (2006) Risk analysis approach for the portuguese west coast. In: Wessex Institute of Technology (eds) Risk analysis 2006. Fifth international conference on computer simulation in risk analysis and hazard mitigation, Malta, 19–21 June, pp 251–262Google Scholar
  8. Ecosystem Valuation (2009) Travel cost method: ecosystem valuation. Available via Web. http://www.ecosystemvaluation.org/travel_costs.htm. Accessed 12 Oct 2008
  9. Eliot M (2013) Application of geomorphic frameworks to sea-level rise impact assessment. Report 193–01-Rev0. Prepared for Geoscience Australia. Damara WA Pty Ltd, Innaloo, Western AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  10. Gomes P (2009) Impacte da subida do nível do mar sobre o turismo. Master dissertation, faculty of science and technology of the new university of lisbon for the master’s degree in environmental engineeringGoogle Scholar
  11. Gornitz V, Kanciruk P (1989) Assessment of global coastal hazards from sea-level rise. In: Magoon OT (eds) Conducted in the proceedings of the 6th symposium on coastal and ocean management, ASCE, Charleston, 11–14 JulyGoogle Scholar
  12. Hennecke WG, Cowell PJ (2000) GIS modelling of impacts of an accelerated rate of sea-level rise on coastal inlets and deeply embayed shorelines. Environ Eng Geosci 7(3):137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. INE (2002) Census 2001 – Final results, lisbon, national statistics institute: Available via Web http://www.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=INE&xpgid=ine_publicacoes&PUBLICACOESpub_boui=377750&PUBLICACOESmodo=2. Accessed 10 Oct 2008
  14. ICNF (2016) Áreas Protegidas, Rede Natura e Sítios Ramsar - Portugal Continental. Available via Web. http://www.icnf.pt/portal/pn/biodiversidade/cart. Accessed 17 Jul 2016
  15. Nakicenovic N, Swart RJ (2001) IPCC special report on emissions scenarios. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  16. Nguyen TTX, Bonetti J, Rogers K, Woodroffe CD (2016) Indicator-based assessment of climate-change impacts on coasts: a review of concepts, methodological approaches and vulnerability indices. Ocean Coast Manag 123:18–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nicholls RJ, Tol RSJ (2006) Impacts and responses to sea-level rise: a global analysis of the SRES scenarios over the 21st century. Philos T Roy Soc A 361(1841):1073–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Portugal Travel Guide (2009) Time of flight from lisbon to other european cities: Available via Web. www.portugaltravelguide.com. Accessed 13 Feb 2009
  19. Schernewski G, Löser N (2004) The modern tourist’s perception of the beach: is the sandy beach a place of conflict between tourism and biodiversity? managing the baltic sea. Coastline Reports:109–119Google Scholar
  20. Voora VA, Venema HD (2008) The natural capital approach: a concept paper. International Institute for Sustainable Development, WinnipegGoogle Scholar
  21. Worldsalaries (2009) International average salary income comparison. Available via Web. http://worldsalaries.org. Accessed 16 Dec 2008

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Gomes
    • 1
  • Francisco Gutierres
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jorge Rocha
    • 3
  • Ana Cláudia Teodoro
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Environment and AgricultureNational Statistics InstituteLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Big Data Analytics UnitEurecat – Technology Centre of CataloniaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Institute of Geography and Spatial PlanningUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  4. 4.Earth Sciences Institute (ICT) and Department of Geosciences, Environment and Land Planning, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations