Advertisement

Parrot Parties: Established Parties’ Co-optation of Other Parties’ Policy Proposals

Chapter
Part of the Political Campaigning and Communication book series (PCC)

Abstract

This chapter revolves around parties imitating each other. In particular, it is about established parties imitating a challenger party in terms of its core policy issue position. It begins from summarising theory and previous work about such “parroting.” It continues with proof of imitation in 15 contemporary West European countries and zooms in on several empirical examples. This chapter then discusses possible causes of imitation, and ends with suggested effects on the electoral support for the imitated parties, introducing the “parrot hypothesis.”

References

  1. Abou-Chadi, Tarik. 2016. Niche Party Success and Mainstream Party Policy Shifts—How Green and Radical Right Parties Differ in Their Impact. British Journal of Political Science 46 (2): 417–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, James, Samuel Merrill III, and Bernard Grofman. 2005. A Unified Theory of Party Competition: A Cross-National Analysis Integrating Spatial and Behavioral Factors. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams, James, Michael Clark, Lawrence Ezrow, and Garrett Glasgow. 2006. Are Niche Parties Fundamentally Different from Mainstream Parties? The Causes and the Electoral Consequences of Western European Parties’ Policy Shifts, 1976–1998. American Journal of Political Science 50 (3): 513–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams, James, Lawrence Ezrow, and Debra Leiter. 2012. Partisan Sorting and Niche Parties in Europe. West European Politics 35 (6): 1272–1294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Art, David. 2006. The Politics of the Nazi Past in Germany and Austria. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Brady, Henry E. 2011. The Art of Political Science: Spatial Diagrams as Iconic and Revelatory. Perspectives on Politics 9 (2): 311–331.Google Scholar
  7. Carter, Elisabeth. 2005. The extreme right in Western Europe: success or failure? Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  9. Downs, William M. 2001. Pariahs in their Midst: Belgian and Norwegian Parties React to Extremist Threats. West European Politics 24 (3): 23–42.Google Scholar
  10. Downs, William M. 2002. How Effective is the Cordon Sanitaire? Lessons from Efforts to Contain the Far Right in Belgium, France, Denmark and Norway. Journal für Konflikt- und Gewaltforschung 4 (1): 32–51.Google Scholar
  11. Downs, William M. 2012. Political Extremism in Democracies: Combating Intolerance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. Enelow, James M., and Melvin J. Hinich. 1984. The Spatial Theory of Voting: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Ezrow, Lawrence. 2008. On the Inverse Relationship Between Votes and Proximity for Niche Parties. European Journal of Political Research 47: 206–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fischer, Anton. 1988. Democratic Centralism in a Federalist Environment: The Swiss Party of Labour. In Communist Parties in Western Europe: Decline or Adaptation? ed. M. Waller, and M. Fennema. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  15. Gilberg, Trond. 1979. Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland: The Struggle between Nationalism and Internationalism. In Communism and Political Systems in Western Europe, ed. D.E. Albright. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  16. Harmel, Robert, and Lars Svasand. 1997. The Influence of New Parties on Old Parties’ Platforms: The cases of the Progress Parties and Conservative Parties of Denmark and Norway. Party Politics 3 (3): 315–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hester, Robert J. 2009. Co-opting the Immigration Issue within the French Right. French Politics 7: 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hodgson, John H. 1979. Finland: The SKP and Electoral Politics. In Communism and Political Systems in Western Europe D, ed. E. Albright. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  19. Hotelling, Harold. 1929. Stability in Competition. Economic Journal 39 (153): 41–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hyvärinen, Matti, and Jukka Paastela. 1988. Failed Attempts at Modernization: The Finnish Communist Party. In Communist Parties in Western Europe: Decline or Adaptation? ed. M. Waller, and M. Fennema. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  21. Inglehart, Ronald, and Hans-Dieter Klingemann. 1976. “Party Identification, Ideological Preference and the Left-Right Dimension among Western Mass Publics.” In Party Identification and Beyond: Representations of Voting and Party Competition, ed. I. Budge, I. Crewe and D. Farlie. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Kamber, Dominik. 2008. Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Switzerland after 1989/1990—A Survey. In Communist and Post-communist Parties in Europe, ed. U. Backes, and P. Moreau. Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht: Göttingen.Google Scholar
  23. Kedar, Orit. 2009. Voting for Policy, Not Parties: How Voters Compensate for Power Sharing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kriesi, Hanspeter, Edgar Grande, Romain Lachat, Martin Dolezal, Simon Bornschier, and Timotheos Frey. 2008. West European Politics in the Age of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lubbers, Marcel. 2001. Exclusionistic Electorates: Extreme Right-Wing Voting in Western Europe. Nijmegen: ICS Dissertations.Google Scholar
  26. Macdonald, Stuart E., Ola Listhaug, and George Rabinowitz. 1991. Issues and Party Support in Multiparty Systems. American Political Science Review 85: 1107–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Macdonald, Stuart E., George Rabinowitz and Ola Listhaug. 2001. Sophistry Versus Science: On Further Efforts to Rehabilitate the Proximity Model. The Journal of Politics 63: 482–500.Google Scholar
  28. McInnes, Neil. 1975. The Communist Parties of Western Europe. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Meguid, Bonnie M. 2005. Competition Between Unequals: The Role of Mainstream Party Strategy in Niche Party Success. American Political Science Review 99 (3): 435–452.Google Scholar
  30. Meguid, Bonnie M. 2008. Party Competition between Unequals: Strategies and Electoral Fortunes in Western Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Meyer, Thomas M., and Markus Wagner. 2013. Mainstream of Niche? Vote-Seeking Incentives and the Programmatic Strategies of Political Parties. Comparative Political Studies 46 (10): 1246–1272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Minkenberg, Michael. 2001. The Radical Right in Public Office: Agenda-Setting and Policy Effects. West European Politics 24 (4): 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Minkenberg, Michael. 2002. The New Radical Right in the Political Process: Interaction Effects in France and Germany. In Shadows over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe, ed. M. Schain, A. Zolberg, and P. Hossay. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  34. Norris, Pippa. 2005. The Radical Right: Voters and Parties in The Electoral Market. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Perlmutter, Ted. 2002. The Politics of Restriction: The Effect of Xenophobic Parties on Italian Immigration Policy and German Asylum Policy. In Shadows over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe, ed. M. Schain, A. Zolberg, and P. Hossay. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  36. Pettigrew, Thomas F. 1998. Reactions Toward the New Minorities of Western Europe. Annual Review of Sociology 24: 77–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rabinowitz, George, and Stuart E. Macdonald. 1989. A Directional Theory of Issue Voting. American Political Science Review 83 (1): 93–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schain, Martin A. 1987. The National Front in France and the Construction of Political Legitimacy. West European Politics 10 (2): 229–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schain, Martin A. 2002. The Impact of the French National Front on the French Political System. In Shadows over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe, ed. M. Schain, A. Zolberg, and P. Hossay. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  40. Schain, Martin A. 2006. The Extreme-Right and Immigration Policy-Making: Measuring Direct and Indirect Effects. West European Politics 29 (2): 270–289.Google Scholar
  41. Simon, Herbert A. 1985. The Dialogue of Psychology with Political Science. American Political Science Review 79: 293–304.Google Scholar
  42. Strøm, Kaare, and Wolfgang Muller. 1999. Political Parties and Hard Choices. In Policy, Office, or Votes? ed. W.C. Muller, and K. Strøm. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Tannahill, R. Neal. 1978. The Communist Parties of Western Europe. A Comparative Study. Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  44. Van der Brug, Wouter, Meindert Fennema, and Jean Tillie. 2000. Anti-immigrant Parties in Europe: Ideological or protest Vote? European Journal of Political Research 37 (1): 77–102.Google Scholar
  45. Van der Brug, Wouter, Meindert Fennema, and Jean Tillie. 2005. Why Some Anti-Immigrant Parties Fail and Others Succeed. A Two-Step Model of Aggregate Electoral Support. Comparative Political Studies 38 (5): 537–573.Google Scholar
  46. Van der Brug, Wouter, and Joost H.P. van Spanje. 2009. Immigration, Europe, and the ‘New’ Cultural Dimension. European Journal of Political Research 48 (3): 309–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Van der Eijk, Cees, and Mark N. Franklin. 1996. Choosing Europe?: The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Van Heerden, Sjoerdje, and Bram Creusen. 2014. Responding to the Populist Radical Right: The Dutch Case. In European Populism and Winning the Immigration Debate, ed. C. Sandelind. Brussels: European Liberal Forum & Fores.Google Scholar
  49. Van Spanje, Joost H.P. 2010. Contagious Parties. Anti-immigration Parties and Their Impact on Other Parties’ Immigration Stances in Contemporary Western Europe. Party Politics 16 (5): 563–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Van Spanje, Joost H. P. 2011. The Wrong and the Right. A Comparative Analysis of ‘Anti-Immigration’ and ‘Far Right’ Parties in Contemporary Western Europe. Government and Opposition 46 (3): 293–320.Google Scholar
  51. Volkens, Andrea, Pola Lehmann, Nicolas Merz, Sven Regel, and Annika Werner. 2014. The Manifesto Data Collection, Manifesto Project (MRG/CMP/MARPOR). Berlin: WZB.Google Scholar
  52. Waller, Michael, and Meindert Fennema, eds. 1988. Communist Parties in Western Europe: Decline or Adaptation? Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  53. Westholm, Anders. 1997. Distance Versus Direction: The Illusory Defeat of the Proximity Theory of Electoral Choice. American Political Science Review 91: 865–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Widfeldt, Anders. 2004. The Diversified Approach: Swedish Responses to the Extreme Right. In Western Democracies and the Right Extremist Challenge, ed. R. Eatwell, and C. Mudde. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations