Update in Neonatology

  • Faiza Khurshid
  • Imtiaz Ahmad


Neonatal-perinatal medicine is a relatively new subspecialty of pediatrics. However, during the last half century, there has been significant improvement in patient outcomes, reflecting increased use of evidence-based medicine in routine clinical practice.

This chapter aims to present recent developments in the diagnosis and management of some common neonatal conditions based on current practice guidelines. There are two main sections of this chapter. The first addresses normal newborn care while the second presents some common neonatal diseases and issues related to prematurity. Although the term neonatology is ordinarily used when referring to patients in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), well newborn care also comes under the spectrum of neonatology and pediatricians are more likely to see patients in well-baby nurseries than in NICUs.


Newborn Neonatology Neonatal intensive care unit Preterm Neonatal sepsis Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy Newborn screening Breast feeding Umbilical cord care Neonatal resuscitation 


  1. Agthe AG, Kim GR, Mathias KB, Hendrix CW, Chavez-Valdez R, Jansson L, et al. Clonidine as an adjunct therapy to opioids for neonatal abstinence syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2009;123(5):e849–e56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews B, Pellerite M, Myers P, Hageman JR. NICU follow-up: medical and developmental management age 0 to 3 years. NeoReviews. 2014;15(4):e123–e32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aziz K, Dancey P. Screening guidelines for newborns at risk for low blood glucose. Paediatr Child Health. 2004;9(10):723–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker JP. Newborn Medicine and Society: European background and American practice (1750–1975) (review). Bull Hist Med. 1999;73(4):743–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldacchino A, Arbuckle K, Petrie DJ, McCowan C. Neurobehavioral consequences of chronic intrauterine opioid exposure in infants and preschool children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14(1):104.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batton D, Barrington K, Wallman C. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn; American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Surgery; Canadian Paediatric Society Fetus and Newborn Committee. Prevention and management of pain in the neonate: an update. Pediatrics. 2006;118(5):2231–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behrman R, Butler A. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on understanding premature birth and assuring healthy outcomes. Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  8. Bellieni C, Iantorno L, Perrone S, Rodriguez A, Longini M, Capitani S, et al. Even routine painful procedures can be harmful for the newborn. Pain. 2009;147(1):128–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bellieni CV, Tei M, Coccina F, Buonocore G. Sensorial saturation for infants’ pain. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25(Suppl 1):79–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bennett C, Fagan E, Chaharbakhshi E, Zamfirova I, Flicker J. Implementing a protocol using glucose Gel to treat neonatal hypoglycemia. Nurs Womens Health. 2016;20(1):64–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Oestergaard MZ, Chou D, Moller A-B, Narwal R, et al. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic analysis and implications. Lancet. 2012;379(9832):2162–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Chou D, Oestergaard M, Say L, Moller A-B, et al. Born too soon: the global epidemiology of 15 million preterm births. Reprod Health. 2013;10(1):S2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blume-Peytavi U, Lavender T, Jenerowicz D, Ryumina I, Stalder JF, Torrelo A, et al. Recommendations from a European roundtable meeting on best practice healthy infant skin care. Pediatr Dermatol. 2016;33(3):311–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bryanton J, Walsh D, Barrett M, Gaudet D. Tub bathing versus traditional sponge bathing for the newborn. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2004;33(6):704–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Campolongo P, Trezza V, Palmery M, Trabace L, Cuomo V. Developmental exposure to cannabinoids causes subtle and enduring neurofunctional alterations. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2009;85:117–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Canadian Pediatric Society. Prevention and management of pain in the neonate: an update. Position statements and practice points. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Paediatric Society; 2017a.Google Scholar
  17. Canadian Pediatric Society. Management of term infants at increased risk for early onset bacterial sepsis. Position statements and practice points. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Paediatric Society; 2017b.Google Scholar
  18. CDC. GBS. Perinatal prevention guidelines. Group B Strep. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2017.Google Scholar
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pregnant women, infants, and children. Gender. HIV by group. HIV/AIDS. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2017. Google Scholar
  20. Chace DH, Naylor EW. Expansion of newborn screening programs using automated tandem mass spectrometry. Dev Disabil Res Rev. 1999;5(2):150–4.Google Scholar
  21. Cork MJ, Robinson DA, Vasilopoulos Y, Ferguson A, Moustafa M, MacGowan A, et al. New perspectives on epidermal barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis: gene–environment interactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118(1):3–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Creighton PR. Common pediatric dental problems. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1998;45(6):1579–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Darmstadt GL, Dinulos JG. Neonatal skin care. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2000;47(4):757–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Davidson JO, Wassink G, van den Heuij LG, Bennet L, Gunn AJ. Therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy-where to from here? Front Neurol. 2014;6:198.Google Scholar
  25. Denne SC. Neonatal nutrition. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2015;62(2):427–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Di Renzo GC, Melin P, Berardi A, Blennow M, Carbonell-Estrany X, Donzelli G, et al. Intrapartum GBS screening and antibiotic prophylaxis: a European consensus conference. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015;28(7):766–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dore S, Buchan D, Coulas S, Hamber L, Stewart M, Cowan D, et al. Alcohol versus natural drying for newborn cord care. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 1998;27(6):621–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Douglas-Escobar M, Weiss MD. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: a review for the clinician. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(4):397–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Finnegan L, Connaughton J Jr, Kron R, Emich J. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: assessment and management. Addict Dis. 1974;2(1–2):141–58.Google Scholar
  30. Gauer RL, Burket J, Horowitz E. Common questions about outpatient care of premature infants. Am Fam Physician. 2014;90(4):244–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Grunau RE, Oberlander T, Holsti L, Whitfield MF. Bedside application of the neonatal facial coding system in pain assessment of premature infants. Pain. 1998;76(3):277–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Guillén Ú, Weiss EM, Munson D, Maton P, Jefferies A, Norman M, et al. Guidelines for the management of extremely premature deliveries: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2015;136(2):343–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guthrie R, Susi A. A simple phenylalanine method for detecting phenylketonuria in large populations of newborn infants. Pediatrics. 1963;32(3):338–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hachem J-P, Crumrine D, Fluhr J, Brown BE, Feingold KR, Elias PM. pH directly regulates epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis, and stratum corneum integrity/cohesion. J Investig Dermatol. 2003;121(2):345–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hamilton BE, Hoyert DL, Martin JA, Strobino DM, Guyer B. Annual summary of vital statistics: 2010–2011. Pediatrics. 2013;2012:3769.Google Scholar
  36. Harris DL, Battin MR, Weston PJ, Harding JE. Continuous glucose monitoring in newborn babies at risk of hypoglycemia. J Pediatr. 2010;157(2):198–202. e1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harris DL, Weston PJ, Harding JE. Incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia in babies identified as at risk. J Pediatr. 2012;161(5):787–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harris DL, Weston PJ, Signal M, Chase JG, Harding JE. Dextrose gel for neonatal hypoglycaemia (the sugar babies study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2014;382(9910):2077–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harris DL, Alsweiler JM, Ansell JM, Gamble GD, Thompson B, Wouldes TA, et al. Outcome at 2 years after dextrose gel treatment for neonatal hypoglycemia: follow-up of a randomized trial. J Pediatr. 2016;170:54–9. e2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hauk L. AAFP releases position paper on breastfeeding. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91(1):56–7.Google Scholar
  41. Herzlinger RA, Kandall SR, Vaughan HG. Neonatal seizures associated with narcotic withdrawal. J Pediatr. 1977;91(4):638–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hodge JW, Greiner JW, Tsang KY, Sabzevari H, Kudo-Saito C, Grosenbach DW, et al. Costimulatory molecules as adjuvants for immunotherapy. Front Biosci. 2006;11:788–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Holmström G, El Azazi M, Kugelberg U. Ophthalmological follow up of preterm infants: a population based, prospective study of visual acuity and strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999;83(2):143–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Holsti L, Grunau RE. Initial validation of the behavioral indicators of infant pain (BIIP). Pain. 2007;132(3):264–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Horta BL, Victora CG. Long-term effects of breastfeeding-a systematic review. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.Google Scholar
  46. Horta BL, Victora CG, Organization WH. Short-term effects of breastfeeding: a systematic review on the benefits of breastfeeding on diarrhoea and pneumonia mortality. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.Google Scholar
  47. Houweling LM, Bezemer ID, Penning-van Beest FJ, Meijer WM, van Lingen RA, Herings RM. First year of life medication use and hospital admission rates: premature compared with term infants. J Pediatr. 2013;163(1):61–6. e1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Howlett JA, Northington FJ, Gilmore MM, Tekes A, Huisman TA, Parkinson C, et al. Cerebrovascular autoregulation and neurologic injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatr Res. 2013;74(5):525–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hudak ML, Tan RC. Neonatal drug withdrawal. Pediatrics. 2012;129(2):e540–e60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hyde ML. Newborn hearing screening programs: Overview. J Otolaryngol. 2005;34(2):S70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ingram RA, Fitzgerald M, Baccei ML. Developmental changes in the fidelity and short-term plasticity of GABAergic synapses in the neonatal rat dorsal horn. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99(6):3144–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, Trikalinos TA, Lau J. A summary of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's evidence report on breastfeeding in developed countries. Breastfeed Med. 2009;4(S1):S-17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Keels E, Sethna N, Watterberg KL, Cummings JJ, Benitz WE, Eichenwald EC, et al. Prevention and management of procedural pain in the neonate: an update. Pediatrics. 2016;137(2):1–13.Google Scholar
  54. Kirby M, Noel RJ, editors. Nutrition and gastrointestinal tract assessment and management of children with dysphagia. Seminars in speech and language. New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers Inc.; 2007.Google Scholar
  55. Klinger G, Beyene J, Shah P, Perlman M. Do hyperoxaemia and hypocapnia add to the risk of brain injury after intrapartum asphyxia? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005;90(1):F49–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kocherlakota P. Neonatal abstinence syndrome. Pediatrics. 2014;134(2):e547–e61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Korver AM, Konings S, Dekker FW, Beers M, Wever CC, Frijns JH, et al. Newborn hearing screening vs later hearing screening and developmental outcomes in children with permanent childhood hearing impairment. JAMA. 2010;304(15):1701–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kraft WK, Dysart K, Greenspan JS, Gibson E, Kaltenbach K, Ehrlich ME. Revised dose schema of sublingual buprenorphine in the treatment of the neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome. Addiction. 2011;106(3):574–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kurinczuk JJ, White-Koning M, Badawi N. Epidemiology of neonatal encephalopathy and hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy. Early Hum Dev. 2010;86(6):329–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lacaze-Masmonteil T, Rosychuk RJ, Robinson JL. Value of a single C-reactive protein measurement at 18 h of age. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2014;99(1):F76–F9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. van Laerhoven H, de Haan TR, Offringa M, Post B, van der Lee JH. Prognostic tests in term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2013;2012:1297.Google Scholar
  62. Lago P, Garetti E, Merazzi D, Pieragostini L, Ancora G, Pirelli A, et al. Guidelines for procedural pain in the newborn. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98(6):932–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lavender T, Furber C, Campbell M, Victor S, Roberts I, Bedwell C, et al. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12(1):59.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lingappan K, Kaiser JR, Srinivasan C, Gunn AJ, Group CS. Relationship between PCO2 and unfavorable outcome in infants with moderate-to-severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatr Res. 2016;Google Scholar
  65. Liu AJ, Jones MP, Murray H, COOK CM, Nanan R. Perinatal risk factors for the neonatal abstinence syndrome in infants born to women on methadone maintenance therapy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2010;50(3):253–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mahle W, Martin G, Beekman R III, Morrow W. Section on Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Executive Committee. Endorsement of health and human services recommendation for pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart disease. Pediatrics. 2012;129(1):190–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mason WH, Andrews R, Ross LA, WRIGHT JR HT. Omphalitis in the newborn infant. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989;8(8):521–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. MEDICINE COFANaSOAAP, Keels E, Sethna N, Watterberg KL, Cummings JJ, Benitz WE, et al. prevention and management of procedural pain in the neonate: an update. Pediatrics. 2016;137(2):e20154271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mindell JA, Telofski LS, Wiegand B, Kurtz ES. A nightly bedtime routine: impact on sleep in young children and maternal mood. Sleep. 2009;32(5):599–606.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mir F, Tikmani SS, Shakoor S, Warraich HJ, Sultana S, Ali SA, et al. Incidence and etiology of omphalitis in Pakistan: a community-based cohort study. J Infect Dev Countr. 2011;5(12):828–33.Google Scholar
  71. Narayen IC, Blom NA, Ewer AK, Vento M, Manzoni P, te Pas AB. Aspects of pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart defects: when, how and why? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2016;101(2):F162–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nelson KB, Bingham P, Edwards EM, Horbar JD, Kenny MJ, Inder T, et al. Antecedents of neonatal encephalopathy in the vermont oxford network encephalopathy registry. Pediatrics. 2012;2012:0714.Google Scholar
  73. Newman TB, Puopolo KM, Wi S, Draper D, Escobar GJ. Interpreting complete blood counts soon after birth in newborns at risk for sepsis. Pediatrics. 2010;126(5):903–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. NICE (2012) Early-onset neonatal infection overview - NICE Pathways: sNICE guidance and other sources used to create this interactive flowchart.Neonatal infection (early onset): antibiotics for prevention and treatment NICE guideline CG149 Neonatal infection (2014) NICE quality standard 75Xpert GBS test for the intrapartum detection of group B streptococcus (2015) NICE medtech innovation briefing 28; 2017 [Available from:
  75. Nygaard E, Slinning K, Moe V, Walhovd KB. Cognitive function of youths born to mothers with opioid and poly-substance abuse problems during pregnancy. Child Neuropsychol. 2015:159–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Oster ME, Lee KA, Honein MA, Riehle-Colarusso T, Shin M, Correa A. Temporal trends in survival among infants with critical congenital heart defects. Pediatrics. 2013;2012:3435.Google Scholar
  77. Papile L-A, Baley JE, Benitz W, Cummings J, Carlo WA, Eichenwald E, et al. Hypothermia and neonatal encephalopathy. Pediatrics. 2014;133(6):1146–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Patel H, Feldman M. Universal newborn hearing screening. Paediatr Child Health. 2011;16(5):301.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pediatrics AAo. Neonatal encephalopathy and neurologic outcome, second edition. Report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Task Force on Neonatal Encephalopathy. Pediatrics. 2014;133(5):e1482–e8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pediatrics AA, FaN C. Prevention and management of pain in the neonate: an update. Pediatrics. 2006;118(5):2231–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Perlman JM, Wyllie J, Kattwinkel J, Wyckoff MH, Aziz K, Guinsburg R, et al. Part 7: neonatal resuscitation. Circulation. 2015;132(16 suppl 1):S204–S41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Philip AG. The evolution of neonatology. Pediatr Res. 2005;58(4):799–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Polin RA. Management of neonates with suspected or proven early-onset bacterial sepsis. Pediatrics. 2012;129(5):1006–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Puopolo KM, Draper D, Wi S, Newman TB, Zupancic J, Lieberman E, et al. Estimating the probability of neonatal early-onset infection on the basis of maternal risk factors. Pediatrics. 2011;2010:3464.Google Scholar
  85. Raju TN, Pemberton VL, Saigal S, Blaisdell CJ, Moxey-Mims M, Buist S. Long-term healthcare outcomes of preterm birth: an executive summary of a conference sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. J Pediatr. 2016;181:309–318.e1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ramezani T, Shirazi ZH, Sarvestani RS, Moattari M. Family-centered care in neonatal intensive care unit: a concept analysis. Int J Commun Nurs Midwif. 2014;2(4):268.Google Scholar
  87. Robinson S, Fall C. Infant nutrition and later health: a review of current evidence. Forum Nutr. 2012;4(8):859–74.Google Scholar
  88. Rollins N, Booth T, Morriss MC, Sanchez P, Heyne R, Chalak L. Predictive value of neonatal MRI showing no or minor degrees of brain injury after hypothermia. Pediatr Neurol. 2014;50(5):447–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Roofthooft DW, Simons SH, Anand KJ, Tibboel D, van Dijk M. Eight years later, are we still hurting newborn infants? Neonatology. 2014;105(3):218–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rozance PJ, Hay WW. New approaches to management of neonatal hypoglycemia. Mat Health Neonatol Perinatol. 2016;2(1):3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rutherford M, Biarge MM, Allsop J, Counsell S, Cowan F. MRI of perinatal brain injury. Pediatr Radiol. 2010;40(6):819–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Saari TN. Immunization of preterm and low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2003;112(1):193–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Samara M, Johnson S, Lamberts K, Marlow N, Wolke D. Eating problems at age 6 years in a whole population sample of extremely preterm children. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010;52(2):e16–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sarnat HB, Sarnat MS. Neonatal encephalopathy following fetal distress: a clinical and electroencephalographic study. Arch Neurol. 1976;33(10):696–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schelonka RL, Chai MK, Yoder BA, Hensley D, Brockett RM, Ascher DP. Volume of blood required to detect common neonatal pathogens. J Pediatr. 1996;129(2):275–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schrag SJ, Zell ER, Lynfield R, Roome A, Arnold KE, Craig AS, et al. A population-based comparison of strategies to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal disease in neonates. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(4):233–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schuchat A, Zywicki SS, Dinsmoor MJ, Mercer B, Romaguera J, O'sullivan MJ, et al. Risk factors and opportunities for prevention of early-onset neonatal sepsis: a multicenter case-control study. Pediatrics. 2000;105(1):21–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Seri I, Evans J. Limits of viability: definition of the gray zone. J Perinatol. 2008;28:S4–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shah PS, Herbozo C, Aliwalas LL, Shah VS. Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD004950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Shide DJ, Blass EM. Opioidlike effects of intraoral infusions of corn oil and polycose on stress reactions in 10-day-old rats. Behav Neurosci. 1989;103(6):1168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stevens B, Johnston C, Petryshen P, Taddio A. Premature infant pain profile: development and initial validation. Clin J Pain. 1996;12(1):13–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Stevens B, Yamada J, Lee GY, Ohlsson A. Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;1:CD001069.Google Scholar
  103. Stewart D, Benitz W. Umbilical Cord Care in the Newborn Infant. Pediatrics. 2016;138(3):e20162149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Stoll BJ, Hansen NI, Bell EF, Shankaran S, Laptook AR, Walsh MC, et al. Neonatal outcomes of extremely preterm infants from the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics. 2010;126(3):443–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Takenouchi T, Iwata O, Nabetani M, Tamura M. Therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy: JSPNM & MHLW Japan Working Group practice guidelines: consensus statement from the Working Group on therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), Japan, and Japan Society for Perinatal and Neonatal Medicine (JSPNM). Brain Dev. 2012;34(2):165–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. The President’s Council on Bioethics. The President’s Council on Bioethics: The changing moral focus of newborn screening: an ethical analysis by the president's council on bioethics (Table of Contents); 2017.
  107. Therrell BL, Padilla CD, Loeber JG, Kneisser I, Saadallah A, Borrajo GJ, et al., editors. Current status of newborn screening worldwide: 2015. Semin Perinatol. 2015;39(3):171–87.Google Scholar
  108. Thornton PS, Stanley CA, De Leon DD, Harris D, Haymond MW, Hussain K, et al. Recommendations from the pediatric endocrine society for evaluation and management of persistent hypoglycemia in neonates, infants, and children. J Pediatr. 2015;167(2):238–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tolia VN, Patrick SW, Bennett MM, Murthy K, Sousa J, Smith PB, et al. Increasing incidence of the neonatal abstinence syndrome in US neonatal ICUs. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(22):2118–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Van Handel M, Swaab H, De Vries LS, Jongmans MJ. Long-term cognitive and behavioral consequences of neonatal encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia: a review. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166(7):645–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vandenplas Y, Rudolph CD, Di Lorenzo C, Hassall E, Liptak G, Mazur L, et al. Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines: joint recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;49(4):498–547.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Visscher MO, Adam R, Brink S, Odio M. Newborn infant skin: physiology, development, and care. Clin Dermatol. 2015;33(3):271–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wachman EM, Hayes MJ, Brown MS, Paul J, Harvey-Wilkes K, Terrin N, et al. Association of OPRM1 and COMT single-nucleotide polymorphisms with hospital length of stay and treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome. JAMA. 2013;309(17):1821–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Weston PJ, Harris DL, Battin M, Brown J, Hegarty JE, Harding JE. Oral dextrose gel for the treatment of hypoglycaemia in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;5:CD011027.Google Scholar
  115. WHO. Compilation of WHO recommendations on maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014. Google Scholar
  116. Wolff R, Hommerich J, Riemsma R, Antes G, Lange S, Kleijnen J. Hearing screening in newborns: systematic review of accuracy, effectiveness, and effects of interventions after screening. Arch Dis Child. 2010;95(2):130–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wyckoff MH, Aziz K, Escobedo MB, Kapadia VS, Kattwinkel J, Perlman JM, et al. Part 13: neonatal resuscitation. Circulation. 2015;132(18 suppl 2):S543–S60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical and Molecular SciencesQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations