TXT-tool 3.081-1.7: Undrained Dynamic-Loading Ring-Shear Apparatus and Its Application to Landslide Dynamics

  • Hendy Setiawan
  • Kyoji Sassa
  • Hiroshi Fukuoka
  • Gonghui Wang
  • Naohide Ishikawa


Landslides are the mass of rock, debris and or earth that moves down a slope by gravity. Study on landslide dynamics, including the dynamic of loading and excess pore-pressure generation and dissipation, is necessary to understand the initiation and motion of rapid landslides. This paper presents the development of ring shear apparatus that can facilitate the simulation of landslides, particularly for the formation of shear zone and followed by long and rapid shear displacement. A series of different types of ring shear apparatus (i.e. DPRI-3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) were developed by Prof. K. Sassa and his colleagues at the Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI) of Kyoto University. The application of this apparatus to study the earthquake-induced landslides and landslide-triggered debris flow in Japan are explained in this paper. In addition, the tests using a transparent shear box of the DPRI-7 for visual observation of the shear zone during rapid shearing are also described.


Ring-shear test Landslide dynamics Earthquake-induced landslides Landslide-triggered debris flows Undrained loading 



We acknowledge the support of Scientific-Grant-in-Aid (No.03556021) of the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sport of Japan in 1992 for the development of DPRI-3 (Sassa 1994), as well as DPRI-5 and DPRI-6 for the mitigation purpose of the Hyogo-Ken Nanbu earthquake. The help from Dr. Zieaoddin Shoaei and Dr. Fawu Wang for the system improvement and testing procedures are highly appreciated. The DPRI-7 was developed with support from APERIF Project, funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT). The project was approved by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) as the IPL M-101 APERITIF Project. Many thanks go to all colleagues of the Research Centre on Landslides of the DPRI, Kyoto University for their cooperation.


  1. Ambraseys NN, Bommer JJ (1991) The attenuation of ground accelerations in Europe. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 20:1179–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bishop AW, Green GE, Garga VK, Andersen A, Brown JD (1971) A new ring-shear apparatus and its application to the measurement of residual strength. Geotechnique 21(1):273–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fukushima Y, Tanaka T (1990) A new attenuation relation for peak horizontal acceleration of strong earthquake ground motion in Japan. Bull Seismol Soc Am 80(4):757–783Google Scholar
  4. Garga VK, Sendano JI (2002) Steady state strength of sands in a constant volume ring-shear apparatus. Geotech Test J 25(4):414–421Google Scholar
  5. Hungr O, Morgenstern NR (1984) High-velocity ring-shear tests on sand. Geotechnique 34(3):415–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hvorslev MJ (1939) Torsion shear tests and their place in the determination of the shearing resistance of soils. Proc Am Soc Test Mater 39:999–1022Google Scholar
  7. Ishihara K (1993) Liquefaction and flow failure during earthquakes. Geotechnique 43(3):349–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Sassa K (1984) The mechanism starting liquefied landslides and debris flows. In: Proceedings of 4th international symposium on landslides, Toronto, June, vol 2, pp 349–354Google Scholar
  9. Sassa K (1988) Geotechnical model for the motion of landslides. In: Special lecture of 5th international symposium on landslides, “landslides”, 10–15 July, vol 1, pp 37–55Google Scholar
  10. Sassa K (1992) Access to the dynamics of landslides during earthquakes by a new cyclic loading high-speed ring-shear apparatus (keynote paper). In: Balkema AA (ed) 6th International Symposium on Landslides, “Landslides”, vol 3. Christchurch, 10–14 February, pp 1919–1937Google Scholar
  11. Sassa K (1994) Development of a new cyclic loading ring-shear apparatus to study earthquake-induced-landslides. Report of grain-in-aid for development scientific research by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Japan (Project No. 03556021)Google Scholar
  12. Sassa K (1996) Prediction of earthquake induced landslides. In: Proceedings of 7th international symposium on landslides, vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Trondheim, pp 115–132 (17–21 June)Google Scholar
  13. Sassa K (1997) A new intelligent-type dynamic-loading ring-shear apparatus. Landslide News 10:33Google Scholar
  14. Sassa K (2000) Mechanism of flows in granular soils. In: Proceedings of GeoEng2000, Melbourne, vol 1, pp 1671–1702Google Scholar
  15. Sassa K (2002) Study on the mechanism of earthquake and rainfall induced rapid flow phenomena—disasters and their mitigation in large-scale cities. In: Proceedings of the symposium on aerial prediction of earthquake and rainfall induced flow phenomena (APERIF), “New century of urban area landslide disaster mitigation,” Tokyo, 31 Aug–1 Sept 2002, pp 7–33 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  16. Sassa K, Fukuoka H, Scarascia-Mugnozza G, Evans S (1996) Earthquake-induced landslides: distribution, motion and mechanisms. Soils and foundations, special issue for the Great Hanshin earthquake disaster, pp 53–64Google Scholar
  17. Sassa K, Fukuoka H, Wang FW (1997) Mechanism and risk assessment of landslide-triggered-debris flows: lesson from the 1996.12.6 Otari debris flow disaster, Nagano, Japan. In: Cruden DM, Fell R (eds) Landslide risk assessment, proceedings of the international workshop on landslide risk assessment, Honolulu, pp 347–356 (19–21 Feb)Google Scholar
  18. Sassa K, Wang G, Fukuoka H (2003a) Assessment of earthquake-induced catastrophic landslides in urban areas and their prevention planning. In: Proceedings of international conference on slope engineering, Dec 2003, vol 1. The University of Hong Kong, pp 26–49Google Scholar
  19. Sassa K, Wang G, Fukuoka H (2003b) Performing undrained shear tests on saturated sands in a new intelligent type of ring-shear apparatus. Geotech Test J 26(3):257–265Google Scholar
  20. Shoaei Z, Sassa K (1994) Basic study on the shear behavior of landslides during earthquakes—excess pore pressure in the undrained cyclic loading ring-shear tests. Bull Disaster Prevent Res Inst Kyoto Univ 44(1):1–43Google Scholar
  21. Tika TM (1989) The effect of rate of shear on the residual strength of soil. PhD thesis, University of London (Imperial College of Science and Technology)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hendy Setiawan
    • 1
  • Kyoji Sassa
    • 2
  • Hiroshi Fukuoka
    • 3
  • Gonghui Wang
    • 1
  • Naohide Ishikawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Disaster Prevention Research InstituteKyoto UniversityUjiJapan
  2. 2.International Consortium on LandslidesKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Research Institute for Natural Hazards and Disaster RecoveryNiigata UniversityNiigataJapan

Personalised recommendations