Neurological and Motor Disorders: Neuronal Store-Operated Ca2+ Signaling: An Overview and Its Function
Calcium (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous second messenger that performs significant physiological task such as neurosecretion, exocytosis, neuronal growth/differentiation, and the development and/or maintenance of neural circuits. An important regulatory aspect of neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis is store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) which, in recent years, has gained much attention for influencing a variety of nerve cell responses. Essentially, activation of SOCE ensues following the activation of the plasma membrane (PM) store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCC) triggered by the depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores. In addition to the TRPC (transient receptor potential canonical) and the Orai family of ion channels, STIM (stromal interacting molecule) proteins have been baptized as key molecular regulators of SOCE. Functional significance of the TRPC channels in neurons has been elaborately studied; however, information on Orai and STIM components of SOCE, although seems imminent, is currently limited. Importantly, perturbations in SOCE have been implicated in a spectrum of neuropathological conditions. Hence, understanding the precise involvement of SOCC in neurodegeneration would presumably unveil avenues for plausible therapeutic interventions. We thus review the role of SOCE-regulated neuronal Ca2+ signaling in selecting neurodegenerative conditions.
KeywordsTRPC Calcium Oxidative and ER stress Neurodegenerative diseases
We duly acknowledge the grant support from the National Institutes of Health (DE017102; DE024300; GM113123).
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