Prevention and Management of Obstetric Lacerations at Vaginal Delivery

  • Kate C. Arnold
  • Caroline J. Flint


After all vaginal deliveries, a thorough exam should be performed to evaluate for lacerations. In classifying lacerations, it is important to note if the perineal body, external anal sphincter, or rectal mucosa are involved. Episiotomy may be useful in specific situations; however, routine use is not indicated [1].


Second degree Lacerations Perineal body Episiotomy Vacuum Forceps 


  1. 1.
    Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, Landon MB, Galan HL, Jauniaux ERM, Driscoll DA. Obstetrics: normal and problem pregnancies. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2012.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin no. 165: prevention and management of obstetric lacerations at vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;128:e1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kate C. Arnold
    • 1
  • Caroline J. Flint
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OB/GYNUniversity of Oklahoma HSCOklahoma CityUSA

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