Operative vaginal delivery includes the use of the vacuum extractor or forceps. Vacuum deliveries have an increased fetal risk for cephalohematoma, subgaleal, and retinal hemorrhages, while forceps have an increased fetal risk for scalp and facial injuries. The two methods should not be used sequentially on the same patient as this creates unacceptable risk .
KeywordsOperative vaginal delivery Vacuum Forceps VAVD FAVD
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