Operative Vaginal Delivery

  • Kate C. Arnold
  • Caroline J. Flint


Operative vaginal delivery includes the use of the vacuum extractor or forceps. Vacuum deliveries have an increased fetal risk for cephalohematoma, subgaleal, and retinal hemorrhages, while forceps have an increased fetal risk for scalp and facial injuries. The two methods should not be used sequentially on the same patient as this creates unacceptable risk [1].


Operative vaginal delivery Vacuum Forceps VAVD FAVD 


  1. 1.
    Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, Landon MB, Galan HL, Jauniaux ERM, Driscoll DA. Obstetrics: normal and problem pregnancies. Chapter 15. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin no. 154: operative vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126:e56–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kate C. Arnold
    • 1
  • Caroline J. Flint
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OB/GYNUniversity of Oklahoma HSCOklahoma CityUSA

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