Shoulder Dystocia

  • Kate C. Arnold
  • Caroline J. Flint


Though rare, shoulder dystocia complicates between 0.15 and 1.7% of vaginal deliveries. It is defined in one of two ways: more than 60 s from delivery of the head to the body or the need for additional obstetric maneuvers to deliver the shoulder of the fetus. Maneuvers commonly used include McRoberts, suprapubic pressure, Wood’s screw, and delivery of the posterior arm [1].


Shoulder dystocia Brachial plexus Macrosomia 


  1. 1.
    Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, Landon MB, Galan HL, Jauniaux ERM, Driscoll DA. Obstetrics: normal and problem pregnancies. Chapter 18. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    American college of obstetricians and gynecologists. ACOG practice bulletin no. 40: shoulder dystocia. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100:1045–50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kate C. Arnold
    • 1
  • Caroline J. Flint
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OB/GYNUniversity of Oklahoma HSCOklahoma CityUSA

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