Advertisement

Minority Aging in an Immigrant Context

  • Steven L. ArxerEmail author
  • Maria del Puy Ciriza
  • Marco Shappeck
Chapter
Part of the International Perspectives on Aging book series (Int. Perspect. Aging, volume 17)

Abstract

This chapter focuses on placing elder minority language acquisition in the context of immigration. Acknowledging demographic changes in the United States, we focus on the risk factors associated with immigration and acculturation. Specific attention is given to the economic, social, and cultural effects of immigration on Hispanic immigrants. Exposure to a new country can negatively affect older adults in particular, as poor and economically disadvantaged populations are disproportionally excluded from key institutions and resources. Sociocultural factors profoundly impact minority aging, since acculturation and assimilation are linked with socioeconomic status. We, thus examine the cultural and structural factors that uniquely impact Hispanic elders in an immigrant context. The unique barriers for older immigrants are well documented. Institutional disadvantages exclude immigrants from the type of resources and social networks important for language acquisition and, in turn, impact larger indicators of well-being and language performance.

Keywords

Minority aging Immigration Life transitions Intersections Structural factors Cultural factors Familism Social exchange. language capital Place 

References

  1. Administration on Aging (AOA). (2010). A Statistical Profile of Hispanic Older Americans Aged 65+. Retrieved from http://www.aoa.acl.gov/Aging_Statistics/minority_aging/Facts-on-Hispanic-Elderly.aspx
  2. Angel, J. L., & Angel, R. J. (1992). Age at migration, social connections, and well-being among elderly Hispanics. Journal of Aging and Health, 4(4), 480–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker, G., Beyene, Y., Newsom, R., & Mayen, N. (2003). Creating continuity through mutual assistance: Intergenerational reciprocity in four ethnic groups. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58(3), S151–S159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biafora, F., & Longino, C., Jr. (1990). Elderly Hispanic migration in the United States. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 45(5), S212–S219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boswell, T. D., & Curtis, J. R. (1984). The Cuban-American experience. Totowa, NJ: Rownam & Allanhead.Google Scholar
  6. Burr, J., Mutchler, J., & Gerst, K. (2011). Home ownership among Mexican–Americans in later life. Research on Aging, 33(4), 379–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campos, B., Ullman, J. B., Aguilera, A., & Dunkel Schetter, C. (2014). Familism and psychological health: The intervening role of closeness and social support. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(2), 191–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chavez, L. (1998). Shadowed lives: Undocumented immigrants in American society. Orlando: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  9. Chow, J. C., Auh, E. Y., Scharlach, A. E., Lehning, A. J., & Goldstein, C. S. (2010). Types and sources of support received by family caregivers of older adults from diverse racial and ethnic groups. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work: Innovation in Theory, Research, & Practice, 19(3), 175–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cornelius, W. A., & Lewis, J. M. (Eds.). (2006). Impacts of border enforcement on Mexican migration: The view from sending communities. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers and Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, UCSD.Google Scholar
  11. Corsini, R. J. (1987). Concise encyclopedia of psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  12. Cowan, P. A. (1991). Individual and family life transitions: A proposal for a new definition. In P. A. Cowan & E. M. Hetherington (Eds.), Family transitions (pp. 3–30). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  13. Elder, G. H. (1994). Time, human agency, and social change: Perspectives on the life course. Social Psychology, 57(1), 4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Escobar, J., Hoyos, N., & Gara, M. (2000). Immigration and mental health: Mexican Americans in the United States. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 8(2), 64–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Espin, O. M. (1987). Psychological impact of migration on Latinas. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11(4), 489–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Estes, C., Biggs, S., & Phillipson, C. (2003). Social theory, social policy and ageing: Critical perspectives. Maidenhead: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Feagin, J. R. (2010). White racial frame: Centuries of racial framing and counter-framing. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Fernandez Kelly, M. P., & Schauffler, R. (1996). Divided fates: Immigrant children and the new assimilation. In A. Portes (Ed.), The new second generation (pp. 30–53). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Franklin, D. L. (2010). African Americans and the birth of modern marriage. In B. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 63–74). New York, NY: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  20. Gallo, L. C., Penedo, F. J., Espinosa de los Monteros, K., & Arguelles, W. (2009). Resiliency in the face of disadvantage: Do Hispanic cultural characteristics protect health outcomes? Journal of Personality, 77(6), 1707–1746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gomes, C. (2007). Intergenerational exchanges in Mexico types and intensity of support. Current Sociology, 55(4), 545–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Granovetter, M. S. (1973). Strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gratton, B. (1987). Familism among the Black and Mexican American elderly: Myth or reality. Journal of Aging Studies, 1(1), 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grieco, E. (2003). Migration policy institute policy brief. Washington DC: Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/MPIPolicyBrief Census.pdf
  25. Hamilton, J., & Sandelowski, M. (2003). Living the golden rule: Reciprocal exchange among African Americans with cancer. Qualitative Health Research, 13(5), 656–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hirdes, J., & Strain, L. (1995). The balance of exchange in instrumental support with network members outside the household. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 50B, S134–S142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson, C. L., & Barer, B. M. (2003). Family lives of aging Black Americans. In J. F. Gubrium & J. A. Holstein (Eds.), Ways of aging (pp. 111–131). Malden, MA: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Markides, K. S., Martin, H. W., & Gomez, E. (1983). Older Mexican Americans: A study in an urban barrio. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  29. Martinez, I. L. (2002). The elder in the Cuban American family: Making sense of the real and ideal. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 33(3), 359–375.Google Scholar
  30. Nevins, J. (2010). Operation gatekeeper and beyond: The war on “illegals” and the remaking of the United States-Mexico boundary. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Padilla, A. (2002). Hispanic psychology: A 25-year retrospective look. In W. Lonner, D. Dinnel, S. Hayes, & D. Sattler (Eds.), Online readings in psychology and culture (Unit 3, Chapter 3). Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University. Retrieved from https://www.wwu.edu/culture/padilla.htm
  32. Padilla, E. R. (Ed.). (1980). Acculturation: Theory, models, and some new findings. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  33. Padilla, E. R., Olmedao, E., & Loya, F. (1982). Acculturation and the MMPI performance of Chicano and Anglo college students. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 4(4), 451–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Passel, J., & Cohn, D. (2010). U.S. unauthorized immigration flows are down sharply since mid-decade. Washington DC.: Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2010/09/01/us-unauthorized-immigration-flows-are-down-sharply-since-mid-decade/
  35. Paykel, E. S. (1974). Life stress and psychiatric disorder: Applications of the clinical approach. In B. S. Dohrenwend & B. P. Dohrenwend (Eds.), Stressful life events: Their nature and effects (pp. 135–149). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  36. Perez, K. G., & Cruess, D. (2014). The impact of familism on physical and mental health among Hispanics in the United States. Health Psychology Review, 8(1), 95–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Portes, A., & Bach, R. L. (1985). Latin Journey: Cuban and Mexican immigrants in the United States. California: University California Press.Google Scholar
  38. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2006). Immigrant America: A portrait. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  39. Rodriguez, J., & Kosloski, K. (1998). The impact of acculturation on attitudinal familism in a community of Puerto Rican Americans. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Science, 20(3), 375–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Roscow, I. (1967). Social integration of the aged. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  41. Sanchez, G. L. (1997). Face the nation: Race, immigration, and the rise of nativism in late twentieth century America. International Migration Review, 31(4), 1009–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schwawrtz, S. J. (2007). The applicability of familism to diverse ethnic groups: A preliminary study. The Journal of Social Psychology, 14(2), 101–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Smalley, W. (1963). Culture shock, language shock, and the shock of self-discovery. Practical Anthropology, 10(1), 49–56.Google Scholar
  44. Smith-Morris, C., Morales-Campos, D., Alvarez, E. A. C., & Turner, M. (2013). An anthropology of familismo on narratives and description of Mexican/immigrants. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 74(2), 312–327.Google Scholar
  45. Suarez, L., & Pulley, L. (1995). Comparing acculturation scales and their relationship to cancer screening among older Mexican-American women. Journal of National Cancer Institute Monograph, 18, 41–47.Google Scholar
  46. Suro, R., & Tafoya, S. (2004). Dispersal and concentration: Patterns of Latina/o residential settlement. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2004/12/27/dispersal-and-concentration/
  47. Taylor, Z. E., Larsen-Rife, D., Conger, R. D., & Widaman, K. F. (2012). Familism, interpersonal conflict, and parenting in Mexican-origin families: A cultural-contextual framework. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(2), 312–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Treas, J. (2008). Transnational older adults and their families. Family Relations, 57(4), 468–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Treas, J., & Mazumdar, S. (2002). Older people in America’s immigrant families: Dilemmas of dependence, integration, and isolation. Journal of Aging Studies, 16(3), 243–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Treas, J., & Mazumdar, S. (2004). Caregiving and kinkeeping: Contributions of older people in immigrant families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35(1), 105–122.Google Scholar
  51. Tummala-Nara, P. (2001). Asian trauma survivors: Immigration, identity, loss, and recovery. Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 3(3), 243–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Valle, R., & Cook-Gait, H. (1998). Caregiving across cultures. Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Viruell-Fuentes, E. A. (2011). “It’s a lot of work”: Racialization processes, ethnic identity formations, and their health implications. DuBois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 8(1), 37–52.Google Scholar
  54. Wilmoth, J. M., & Chen, P-C. (2003). Immigrant status, living arrangements, and depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 58B(5) (September): S305-S313.Google Scholar
  55. Wong, R., & Palloni, A. (2009). Aging in Mexico and Latin America. In P. Uhlenbery (Ed.), International handbook of population aging (pp. 231–252). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  56. Zhou, M. (2001). Contemporary immigration and the dynamics of race and ethnicity. In N. J. Smelser, W. J. Wilson, & F. Mitchell (Eds.), America becoming: Racial trends and their consequences (pp. 200–242). Washington DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  57. Zinn, M. B. (1994). Feminist rethinking from racial-ethnic families. In M. B. Zinn, & B. T. Dill (Eds.), Women of color in U.S. society (pp. 18–26). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven L. Arxer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria del Puy Ciriza
    • 2
  • Marco Shappeck
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Sociology and PsychologyUniversity of North Texas at DallasDallasUSA
  2. 2.Department of Spanish and Hispanic StudiesTexas Christian UniversityFort WorthUSA
  3. 3.Department of Teacher Education and AdministrationUniversity of North Texas at DallasDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations