Hysteroscopy pp 193-199 | Cite as

Hysteroscopic Embryo Transfer: HEED and SEED

  • Michael Kamrava


Using a direct visually guided precision placement or implantation of a single embryo, the hysteroscopic embryo delivery procedures will help optimize the results and decrease major side effects. These include: multiple pregnancies, ectopic/heterotopic pregnancies, and placenta previa from IVF, which rank high on the list of major concerns to public health and maternal and infant safety, affecting millions of couples hoping to have a healthy family.


SEED HEED IVF Hysteroscopy Embryo implantation Embryo transfer In vitro fertilization PGS ICSI Uterine contractions 



Embryo transfer


Hysteroscopic endometrial embryo transfer


Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection


In vitro fertilization


Preimplantation genetic screening


Subendometrial embryo delivery



The project was supported by West Coast IVF Clinic, Inc. and LA IVF Lab, LLC, Beverly Hills, CA, USA, and was also partially supported by a generous funding from Organon®. The authors wish to thank Soheila Kamrava, Michelle Kamrava, LMFT, ATR, and Mitchell Kamrava, M.D. for their invaluable support and understanding during preparation of this report.


  1. 1.
    Steptoe PC, Edwards RG. Birth after the reimplantation of a human embryo. Lancet. 1978;2(8085):366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yang R, Li H, Li R, Liu P, Qiao J. A comparison among different methods of letrozole combined with gonadotropin in an antagonist protocol and high-dose gonadotropin ovarian stimulation antagonist protocol in poor ovarian responders undergoing in vitro fertilization. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016;294(5):1091–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wei LH, Ma WH, Tang N, Wei JH. Luteal-phase ovarian stimulation is a feasible method for poor ovarian responders undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer treatment compared to a GnRH antagonist protocol: a retrospective study. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;55(1):50–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Qin N, Chen Q, Hong Q, Cai R, Gao H, Wang Y, et al. Flexibility in starting ovarian stimulation at different phases of the menstrual cycle for treatment of infertile women with the use of in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril. 2016;106(2):334–41.e1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pereira N, Friedman C, Hutchinson AP, Lekovich JP, Elias RT, Rosenwaks Z. Increased odds of live birth in fresh in vitro fertilization cycles with shorter ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril. 2017;107(1):104–9.e2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nyboe Andersen A, Nelson SM, Fauser BC, Garcia-Velasco JA, Klein BM, Arce JC, et al. Individualized versus conventional ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization: a multicenter, randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded, phase 3 noninferiority trial. Fertil Steril. 2017;107(2):387–396.e4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jungheim ES, Meyer MF, Broughton DE. Best practices for controlled ovarian stimulation in in vitro fertilization. Semin Reprod Med. 2015;33(2):77–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Healy DL, Okamato S, Morrow L, Thomas A, Jones M, McLachlan V, et al. Contributions of in vitro fertilization to knowledge of the reproductive endocrinology of the menstrual cycle. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987;1(1):133–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fishel SB, Edwards RG, Purdy JM, Steptoe PC, Webster J, Walters E, et al. Implantation, abortion, and birth after in vitro fertilization using the natural menstrual cycle or follicular stimulation with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transf. 1985;2(3):123–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dellenbach P, Nisand I, Moreau L, Feger B, Plumere C, Gerlinger P. Transvaginal sonographically controlled follicle puncture for oocyte retrieval. Fertil Steril. 1985;44(5):656–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Parsons J, Riddle A, Booker M, Sharma V, Goswamy R, Wilson L, et al. Oocyte retrieval for in-vitro fertilisation by ultrasonically guided needle aspiration via the urethra. Lancet. 1985;1(8437):1076–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schulman JD, Dorfmann A, Jones S, Joyce B, Hanser J. Outpatient in vitro fertilization using transvaginal oocyte retrieval and local anesthesia. N Engl J Med. 1985;312(25):1639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hamberger L, Wikland M, Enk L, Nilsson L. Laparoscopy versus ultrasound guided puncture for oocyte retrieval. Acta Eur Fertil. 1986;17(3):195–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kemeter P, Feichtinger W. Trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval using a trans-vaginal sector scan probe combined with an automated puncture device. Hum Reprod. 1986;1(1):21–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Robertson RD, Picker RH, O'Neill C, Ferrier AJ, Saunders DM. An experience of laparoscopic and transvesical oocyte retrieval in an in vitro fertilization program. Fertil Steril. 1986;45(1):88–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Diedrich K, Van der Ven H, Al-Hasani S, Werner A, Krebs D. Oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 1987;45(3):351–7.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sunde A, Brison D, Dumoulin J, Harper J, Lundin K, Magli MC, et al. Reply I: Embryo culture media effects. Hum Reprod. 2017;32:719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gu F, Deng M, Gao J, Wang Z, Ding C, Xu Y, et al. The effects of embryo culture media on the birthweight of singletons via fresh or frozen-thawed embryo transfer: a large-scale retrospective study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016;16:270.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dyrlund TF, Kirkegaard K, Poulsen ET, Sanggaard KW, Hindkjaer JJ, Kjems J, et al. Unconditioned commercial embryo culture media contain a large variety of non-declared proteins: a comprehensive proteomics analysis. Hum Reprod. 2014;29(11):2421–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pool TB, Schoolfield J, Han D. Human embryo culture media comparisons. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;912:367–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hambiliki F, Sandell P, Yaldir F, Stavreus-Evers A. A prospective randomized sibling-oocyte study of two media systems for culturing cleavage-stage embryos-impact on fertilization rate. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2011;28(4):335–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gruber I, Klein M. Embryo culture media for human IVF: which possibilities exist? J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc. 2011;12(2):110–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reed ML, Hamic A, Thompson DJ, Caperton CL. Continuous uninterrupted single medium culture without medium renewal versus sequential media culture: a sibling embryo study. Fertil Steril. 2009;92(5):1783–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pool TB. An update on embryo culture for human assisted reproductive technology: media, performance, and safety. Semin Reprod Med. 2005;23(4):309–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ressler IB, Pakrashi T, Sroga JM, DiPaola KB, Thomas MA, Lindheim SR. Effects of embryo transfer catheters on the endometrial surface noted at hysteroscopy. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2013;20(3):381–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rhodes TL, Higdon HL, Boone WR. Comparison of pregnancy rates for two embryo-transfer catheters. Fertil Steril. 2007;87(2):411–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tiras B, Korucuoglu U, Polat M, Saltik A, Zeyneloglu HB, Yarali H. Effect of blood and mucus on the success rates of embryo transfers. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;165(2):239–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tiras B, Korucuoglu U, Polat M, Saltik A, Zeyneloglu HB, Yarali H. Effect of air bubble localization after transfer on embryo transfer outcomes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;164(1):52–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kovacs G. How to improve your ART success rates : an evidence-based review of adjuncts to IVF. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press; 2011. xii, 262pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mains L, Van Voorhis BJ. Optimizing the technique of embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 2010; 94(3):785–90.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lesny P, Killick SR, Robinson J, Maguiness SD. Transcervical embryo transfer as a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 1999;72(2):305–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nastri COGA, Raine-Fenning N, Maheshwari A, Ferriani RA, Bhattacharya S, Martins WP. Endometrial injury in women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(7):CD009517.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Spingler H, Wurfel W, Steck T, Schlafke J, von Hertwig I, Albert P. Development of a hysteroscopy transfer scope and initial experiences with its use in intratubal embryo transfer (IVF/IT-ET). Gynakol Rundsch. 1989;29((Suppl 2):439–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kitamura S, Sugiyama T, Iida E, Miyazaki T, Yoshimura Y. A new hysteroscopic tubal embryo transfer catheter: development and clinical application. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2001;27(5):281–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kilani Z, Shaban M, Hassan LH. Live birth after hysteroscopic-guided embryo transfer: a case report. Fertil Steril. 2009;91(6):2733.e1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chian R-C, Dai S-j, Wang Y. Culture media, solutions, and systems in human ART. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kamrava MLT. Hysteroscopic Endometrial Embryo Delivery (HEED). In: Kamrava M, editor. Ectopic pregnancy – modern diagnosis and management. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech; 2011. p. 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kamrava M, Yin M, Lambert H. Embryo transfer. In: Allahbadia GN, editor. Embryo transfer. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd; 2008. p. 449–56.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kamrava M, Yin M. Subendometrial embryo delivery (SEED) with egg donation – mechanical embryo implantation. In: Darwish A, editor. Enhancing success of assisted reproduction. Croatia: Intech; 2012. p. 145–54.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kamrava M, Yin M. Hysteroscopic Endometrial Embryo Delivery (HEED). In: Kamrava M, editor. Ectopic pregnancy. Croatia: Intech; 2011. p. 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kamrava M, Yin M. Hysteroscopic Subendometrial Embryo Delivery (SEED), mechanical embryo implantation. IJFS. 2010;4(1):29–34.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kamrava M, Yin M, Mackler A. In: Allahbadia GN, editor. Hysteroscopic blastocyst implantation: a modern approach to the black box of endometrial receptivity. Mumbai, India: Elsevier; 2005.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kalaskar PS, Karande VV, Bannalikar AS, Gatne MM. Antifungal activity of leaves of mangroves plant acanthus licifolius against aspergillus fumigatus. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2012;74(6):575–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Knutzen V, Stratton CJ, Sher G, McNamee PI, Huang TT, Soto-Albors C. Mock embryo transfer in early luteal phase, the cycle before in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: a descriptive study. Fertil Steril. 1992;57(1):156–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Poindexter AN, Thompson DJ, Gibbons WE, Findley WE, Dodson MG, Young RL. Residual embryos in failed embryo transfer. Fertil Steril. 1986;46:262–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mansour RT, Aboulghar MA, Serour GI, Amin YM. Infertility: dummy embryo transfer using methylene blue dye. Hum Reprod. 1994;9:1257–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Madani T, Ashrafi M, Jahangiri N, Abadi AB, Lankarani N. Improvement of pregnancy rate by modification of embryo transfer technique: a randomized clinical trial. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2424–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Grady R, Alavi N, Vale R, Khandwala M, McDonald SD. Elective single embryo transfer and perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(2):324–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Galen DI, Khan N, Richter KS. Essure multicenter off-label treatment for hydrosalpinx before in vitro fertilization. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2011;18(3):338–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Allen VM, Wilson RD, Cheung A, (SOGC) GCotSoOaGoC, (SOGC) REICotSoOaGoC. Pregnancy outcomes after assisted reproductive technology. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2006;28(3):220–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Romundstad LB, Romundstad PR, Sunde A, von Düring V, Skjaerven R, Vatten LJ. Increased risk of placenta previa in pregnancies following IVF/ICSI; a comparison of ART and non-ART pregnancies in the same mother. Hum Reprod. 2006;21(9):2353–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zhang YL, Sun J, Su YC, Guo YH, Sun YP. Ectopic pregnancy in frozen-thawed embryo transfer: a retrospective analysis of 4,034 cycles and related factors. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2013;59(1):34–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Feng G, Zhang B, Zhou H, Shu J, Gan X, Wu F, et al. Comparable clinical outcomes and live births after single vitrified-warmed and fresh blastocyst transfer. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;25(5):466–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Moragianni VA, Jones SM, Ryley DA. The effect of body mass index on the outcomes of first assisted reproductive technology cycles. Fertil Steril. 2012;98(1):102–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zhang YL, Sun J, Su YC, Guo YH, Sun YP. Study on the incidence and influences on ectopic pregnancy from embryo transfer of fresh cycles and frozen-thawed cycles. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2012;47(9):655–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Herbert DL, Lucke JC, Dobson AJ. Birth outcomes after spontaneous or assisted conception among infertile Australian women aged 28 to 36 years: a prospective, population-based study. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(3):630–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    van Mello NM, Zietse CS, Mol F, Zwart JJ, van Roosmalen J, Bloemenkamp KW, et al. Severe maternal morbidity in ectopic pregnancy is not associated with maternal factors but may be associated with quality of care. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(3):623–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Agarwal S, Wisot A, Garzo G, Meldrum DR. Cornual pregnancies in patients with prior salpingectomy undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril. 1996;65(3):659–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Seshadri S, Shirley P, Jaiganesh T, Uchil D, Jolaoso A. In vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer for bilateral salpingectomies results in a ruptured ovarian ectopic pregnancy due to a tubal stump fistula: a case report and review of the literature. BMJ Case Rep. 2010;2010 doi: 10.1136/bcr.09.2009.2291.
  60. 60.
    Chang HJ, Suh CS. Ectopic pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology: what are the risk factors? Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2010;22(3):202–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kathiresan ASQ, Rodriguez M, Wang E, Pisarska MD, Hill D, Alexander C. Ectopic pregnancy rates in day 3 versus day 5 embryo transfers in fresh IVF cycles. Fertility and Sterility. 2013;100(3):S508–S9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pisarska MD, Casson PR, Moise KJ Jr, DiMaio DJ, Buster JE, Carson SA. Heterotopic abdominal pregnancy treated at laparoscopy. Fertil Steril. 1998;70(1):159–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ASRM, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. 2014 Assisted Reproductive Technology National Summary Report. In: Services UDoHaH, editor. Atlanta, GA, USA; 2016.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Weghofer A, Klein K, Stammler-Safar M, Worda C, Barad DH, Husslein P, et al. Can prematurity risk in twin pregnancies after in vitro fertilization be predicted? A retrospective study. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:136.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Olukoya OY, Okeke CC, Kemi AI, Ogbeche RO, Adewusi AJ, Ashiru OA. Multiple gestations/pregnancies from IVF process in a fertility center in Nigeria, 2009-2011: implementing policy towards fewer (double and single) embryo transfer. Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2012;22(2):80–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Embryologists AoC, Bliss, Society BF, Association BIC, Network DC, UK E, et al. Multiple births from fertility treatment in the UK: a consensus statement. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2011;14(3):151–3.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ory SJ. The national epidemic of multiple pregnancy and the contribution of assisted reproductive technology. Fertil Steril. 2013;100(4):929–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sundheimera LW, Wangb ET, Quantc C, Spadesd C, Simmonse, Pisarska MD. Adverse perinatal outcomes associated with fertility treatment in late preterm infants. Fertil Steril. 2016;106(3):e175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wang ET, Ozimek JA, Greene N, Ramos L, Vyas N, Kilpatrick SJ, et al. Impact of fertility treatment on severe maternal morbidity. Fertil Steril. 2016;106(2):423–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Nelissen EC, Van Montfoort AP, Smits LJ, Menheere PP, Evers JL, Coonen E, et al. IVF culture medium affects human intrauterine growth as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 2013;28(8):2067–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Glujovsky D, Blake D, Farquhar C, Bardach A. Cleavage stage versus blastocyst stage embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;7:CD002118.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Harper J, Magli MC, Lundin K, Barratt CL, Brison D. When and how should new technology be introduced into the IVF laboratory? Hum Reprod. 2012;27(2):303–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wu F, Lu R, Bai XH, Song XR. Influence of EmbryoGlue on the implantation of embryo and pregnancy outcome in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2012;47(2):121–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Thomas MR, Sparks AE, Ryan GL, Van Voorhis BJ. Clinical predictors of human blastocyst formation and pregnancy after extended embryo culture and transfer. Fertil Steril. 2010;94(2):543–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Geary S, Moon YS. The human embryo in vitro: recent progress. J Reprod Med. 2006;51(4):293–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ngugi SA, Ventura VV, Qazi O, Harding SV, Kitto GB, Estes DM, et al. Lipopolysaccharide from Burkholderia thailandensis E264 provides protection in a murine model of melioidosis. Vaccine. 2010;28(47):7551–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rienzi L, Gracia C, Maggiulli R, LaBarbera AR, Kaser DJ, Ubaldi FM, et al. Oocyte, embryo and blastocyst cryopreservation in ART: systematic review and meta-analysis comparing slow-freezing versus vitrification to produce evidence for the development of global guidance. Hum Reprod Update. 2017;23:139–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Menezo YJ. Blastocyst freezing. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004;115(Suppl 1):S12–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    He QH, Wang L, Liang LL, Zhang HL, Zhang CL, Li HS, et al. Clinical outcomes of frozen-thawed single blastocyst transfer in patients requiring whole embryo freezing. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2016;62(2):133–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Courbiere B, Decanter C, Bringer-Deutsch S, Rives N, Mirallie S, Pech JC, et al. Emergency IVF for embryo freezing to preserve female fertility: a French multicentre cohort study. Hum Reprod. 2013;28(9):2381–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Check JH, Choe JK, Brasile D, Cohen R, Horwath D. Comparison of pregnancy rates following frozen embryo transfer according to the reason for freezing: risk of ovarian hyperstimulation vs inadequate endometrial thickness. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2012;39(4):434–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kushnir VA, Darmon SK, Albertini DF, Barad DH, Gleicher N. Effectiveness of in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening: a reanalysis of United States assisted reproductive technology data 2011–2012. Fertil Steril. 2016;106(1):75–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Majumdar G, Majumdar A, Lall M, Verma IC, Upadhyaya KC. Preimplantation genetic screening for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization significantly increases implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization with poor prognosis. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2016;9(2):94–100.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lee HL, McCulloh DH, Hodes-Wertz B, Adler A, McCaffrey C, Grifo JA. In vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening improves implantation and live birth in women age 40 through 43. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2015;32(3):435–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mainigi MA, Olalere V, Burd I, Sapienza C, Bartolomei M, Coutifaris C, editors. Peri-implantation hormonal milieu: elucidating mechanisms of abnormal placentation and fetal growth. In: 46th annual meeting of the Society for the study of reproduction; 2014 July. Montreal, Canada: Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc. p. 2013.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sequeira K, Espejel-Nunez A, Vega-Hernandez E, Molina-Hernandez A, Grether-Gonzalez P. An increase in IL-1beta concentrations in embryo culture-conditioned media obtained by in vitro fertilization on day 3 is related to successful implantation. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2015;32(11):1623–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Estes SJ, Missmer SA, Ginsburg ES. Should a patient’s own IVF physician perform the embryo transfer? J Assist Reprod Genet. 2006;23(5):235–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lalwani S, Timmreck L, Friedman R, Penzias A, Alper M, Reindollar RH. Variations in individual physician success rates within an in vitro fertilization program might be due to patient demographics. Fertil Steril. 2004;81(4):944–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hearns-Stokes RM, Miller BT, Scott L, Creuss D, Chakraborty PK, Segars JH. Pregnancy rates after embryo transfer depend on the provider at embryo transfer. Fertil Steril. 2000;74(1):80–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Karande VC, Morris R, Chapman C, Rinehart J, Gleicher N. Impact of the “physician factor” on pregnancy rates in a large assisted reproductive technology program: do too many cooks spoil the broth? Fertil Steril. 1999;71(6):1001–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lesny P, Killick SR, Tetlow RL, Robinson J, Maguiness SD. Embryo transfer—can we learn anything new from the observation of junctional zone contractions. Hum Reprod. 1998;13:1540–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.West Coast IVF Clinic, Inc.Beverly HillsUSA

Personalised recommendations