Structural Hierarchies and Fragments Among Vietnamese Caodaists
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Even though Caodaism has been recognized as an official religion in Cambodia since 1993, Vietnamese Caodaists have continued to face anti-Vietnamese sentiments within the Cambodian legal system. Similar to the experiences of Vietnamese Caodaists in the U.S., they are racialized as following a Vietnamese religion and are under the authority of the Holy See in Vietnam. This racialization has restricted their efforts to spread Caodaism to non-Vietnamese. They have tried to counter this ethnic and religious marginalization by submitting to the authority of the Caodai Holy See in exchange for Vietnamese government-backed political and economic support. However, because of this dependence, Vietnamese Caodaists in Cambodia have also been closed off from co-religionists in the U.S., who oppose the Holy See since it came under the control of the Vietnamese communist regime in 1975.
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