Advertisement

Migration Context and Contestations

Chapter
  • 103 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter theorises African immigrants as the threatening other in South Africa based on secondary sources and other sources from the media. The chapter demonstrates how and why African immigrants are constructed as the threatening other and on this basis puts a case for the need for a deconstructionist reading and analysis of the projection of African immigrants as the threatening other.

Keywords

African immigrants Deconstructionist Threatening other South africa 

References

  1. Aboobaker, S. (2015). Foreign-owned shops in Alexandra looted. Available at: http://www.iol.co.za/news/crime-courts/foreign-owned-shops-in-alexandra-looted1.1847071#.VT36FSGqqko. Accessed April 27, 2015.
  2. Adepoju, A. (2003). Leading issues in international migration in sub-Saharan Africa. In C. Cross, D. Gelderblom, N. Roux, & J. Mafukidze (Eds.), Views on migration in sub-Saharan Africa: Proceedings of an African migration alliance workshop (pp. 25–47). Cape Town: HRSC Press.Google Scholar
  3. Adepoju, A. (2010). Rethinking the dynamics of migration within and from Africa. In A. Adepoju (Ed.), International migration, within to and from Africa in a globalised world (pp. 9–45). Accra: Network of Migration Research on Africa.Google Scholar
  4. Biesta, G. (2010). This is my truth, tell me yours: Deconstructive pragmatism as a philosophy in education. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 42(7), 710–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boje, D. M. (2001). Narrative methods for organisational and communication research. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brooke, A. (2012). South Africa more corrupt since 2009. E-news presenter. December 8, 2012.Google Scholar
  7. Brooke, A. (2013). Foreign owned shops looted in Delmas, Mpumalanga. E-news presenter. March 2, 2013.Google Scholar
  8. Burman, E., & MacLure, M. (2005). Deconstruction as a method. In B. Somekh & C. Lewin (Eds.), Research methods in the social sciences (pp. 284–292). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Campell, E. (2010). Irregular migration within and to the Republic of South Africa and from the African continent to the European Union: Trapping latent energy of the youth. In A. Adepoju (Ed.), International migration within and from Africa in a globalised world (pp. 169–207). Legon-Accra: Sub Saharan Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Cheek, J, and Gough, G. 2005. Postmodern perspectives. In B. Somekh, & C. Lewin, (Eds.)‚ Research methods in the social sciences. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage Publications, 302–309.Google Scholar
  11. Cheng, C.-Y. (2012). Deconstruction and difference: Onto-return and emergence in a Daosist interpretation of Derrida. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 39, 31–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Christensen, B. A. (2014). Why do we care about post-humanism? A critical note. GeografiskaAnnaler: Series B, Human Geography, 96(1), 23–35.Google Scholar
  13. City of Joburg guide to inner city urban development zone. 2006: 2. http://www.joburg-archive.co.za/udz/investors_guide.pdf. Accessed July 5, 2014.
  14. City of Johannesburg-Statistics South Africa. http://beta2.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=1021&id=city-of-johannesburg-municipality. Accessed July12, 2014.
  15. Clarke, D. B. (2006). Postmodern geographies and the ruins of modernity. In S. Aitken & G. Valentine (Eds.), Approaches to human geography (pp. 107–121). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Comaroff, J., & Comaroff, J. (2001). Nurturing the nation: Aliens, apocalypse and the postcolonial state. Journal of Southern African Studies, 27(3), 627–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Creswell, J. H. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches. Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Crush, J. (1996). A bad neighbour policy? Migrant labour and the new South Africa. Southern Africa Report, 12(1), 3.Google Scholar
  19. Crush, J. (1997). Covert operations: Clandestine migration, temporary work, and immigration policy in South Africa. Migration Policy Series No. 1. Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  20. Crush, J. (1998). Immigration, human rights and the constitution. In J. Crush (Ed.), Beyond control: Immigration and human rights in a democratic South Africa (pp. 1–17). Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  21. Crush, J. (2000). Migrations past: An historical overview of cross border movement in southern Africa. In D. A. McDonald (Ed.), On borders: Perspectives on international migration in Southern Africa (pp. 12–24). Ontario: Southern African Migration Project.Google Scholar
  22. Crush, J. (2001a). Making up the numbers: Measuring illegal immigration to South Africa. Migration Policy Series No. 3. Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  23. Crush, J. (2001b). Immigration, xenophobia and human rights in South Africa. Migration Policy Series No. 22. Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  24. Crush, J. (2008a). The perfect storm: The realities of xenophobia in contemporary South Africa. Migration Policy Series No. 50. Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  25. Crush, J. (2008b). Mean streets: Johannesburg as an emergent gateway. In M. Price & L. Benton-Short (Eds.), Migrants to the metropolis: The rise of immigrant gateway cities (pp. 255–280). Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Crush, J., Campbell, E., Green, T., Nangulah, S., & Simelane, H. (2006). States of vulnerability: The future brain drain to South Africa. Migration Policy Series No. 42. Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  27. Crush, J., & Frayne, B. (2010). Surviving on the move. In J. Crush & B. Frayne (Eds.), Surviving on the move: Migration, poverty and development in Southern Africa (pp. 1–24). Cape Town: IDASA and Development Bank of Southern Africa.Google Scholar
  28. Crush, J., & McDonald, D. (2001). Introduction to special issue: Evaluating South African immigration policy after apartheid. Africa Today, 48(3), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crush, J, & Pendleton, W. (2004). Regionalising xenophobia? Citizen attitudes to immigration and refugee policy in Southern Africa. Migration Policy Series No. 30. Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  30. Crush, J., & Tawodzera, G. (2011). Right to the classroom: Educational barriers for Zimbabweans in South Africa. Migration Policy Series No. 56. Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  31. Crush, J., & Tawodzera, G. (2014). Medical xenophobia and Zimbabwean migrant access to public health services in South Africa. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(4), 655–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Crush, J., & Tevera, D. (2010). Exiting Zimbabwe. In J. Crush & D. Tevera (Eds.), Zimbabwe‘s exodus: Crisis, migration and survival (pp. 1–51). Cape Town: Southern African Migration Project.Google Scholar
  33. Crush, J., & Williams, V. (2001). Making up the numbers: Measuring ‛illegal immigration’ to South Africa. Migration Policy Series No. 3. Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  34. Daily Sun. (2008, April 14). Much terror has been caused by gangs of armed Zimbabweans, Mozambicans. p. 3.Google Scholar
  35. Daily Sun. (2008, April 17). Too many South Africans going round unemployed. p. 8.Google Scholar
  36. Daily Sun. (2008, April 17 ). Bob‘s Tsunami. p. 1.Google Scholar
  37. Daily Sun. (2008, May 9). Bloody end of alien lover. p. 2.Google Scholar
  38. Daily Sun. (2008, May 9). They wait for darkness before they attack! Aliens use muthi to steal our cattle. p. 11.Google Scholar
  39. Daily Sun. (2008, May 14). War against aliens! Thousands forced to flee Alex. p. 2.Google Scholar
  40. Daily Sun. (2008, May 19). Blood and flames! Aliens killed and injured as new attacks stoke flames of hatred. p. 3.Google Scholar
  41. Daily Sun. (2008, May 20).The Alien Terror! Helicopter chases warring crowds! Fleeing the mighty wind! Going home to Moz. p. 3.Google Scholar
  42. De Klerk, N. (2015). Looters target foreign-owned shops in Joburg. Available at http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/Looters-target-foreign-owned-shops-in-Joburg-20150417. Accessed 27 April 2015.
  43. DeLyser, D., & Sui, D. (2014). Crossing the qualitative-quantitative chasm III: Enduring methods, open geography, participatory research, and the fourth paradigm. Progress in Human Geography, 38(2), 294–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2000). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed. pp. 1–28). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  45. Derrida, J. (1981). Positions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. Dodson, B. (2002). Gender and the brain drain. Migration Policy Series No. 23. Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  47. Dyers, C., & Wankah, F. J. (2012). ‘Us and them’: The discursive construction of ‘the other’ in Greenmarket Square Cape Town. Language and Intercultural Communication, 12(3), 230–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Easton, G. (2010). Critical realism in case study research. Industrial Marketing Management, 39, 118–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Entrekin, J. N., & Tepple, J. H. (2006). Humanism and democratic place making. In S. Aitken & G. Valentine (Eds.), Approaches to human geography (pp. 30–41). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fine, J, & Bird, W. (2006). Shades of prejudice: An investigation into South Africa`s Media Coverage of Racial Violence and Xenophobia. Braamfontein Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation. www.csvr.org.za.docs/foreignre.shades.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2011.
  51. Frers, L. (2013). The matter of absence. Cultural Geographies, 20(4), 431–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gormley, S. (2012). Rearticulating the concept of experience, rethinking the demands of deconstruction. Research in Phenomenology, 42, 374–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hawker, D. (2015). South African businesses hurt by Jeppestown looting. Available at http://www.enca.com/south-africa/south-african-businesses-affected-jeppestown-looting. Accessed April 27, 2015.
  54. Hunter, Q. (2015). Zuma says ‘sister countries’ add to xenophobia. Available at http://mg.co.za/article/2015–04-27-zuma-says-sister-countries-add-to-xenophobia. Accessed September 29, 2015.
  55. Iosifides, T. (2011). Qualitative methods in migration studies: A critical realist perspective. Surrey and Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  56. Ivier, A. M. (2013a). Xenophobic attacks on the increase, according to the African Diaspora Forum. E-News presenter. May 20, 2013.Google Scholar
  57. Ivier, A. M. (2013b). Somali shops looted in Orange Farm. E-News presenter. May 24, 2013.Google Scholar
  58. Ivier, A. M. (2013c). Somali owned shops looted. E-News presenter. September 20, 2013.Google Scholar
  59. Ivier, A. M. (2013d). Outrage over President Jacob Zuma`s comments. E-News presenter. October 22, 2013.Google Scholar
  60. Ivier, A. M. (2014). Allegations of ill treatment of immigrants by Department of Home Affairs and the South African Police Service. E-News presenter. October 13, 2014.Google Scholar
  61. Kalitanyi, V., & Visser, K. (2010). African immigrants in South Africa: Job takers or job creators? SAJEMS, 13(4), 376–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kazi, M. A. F. (2003). Realist evaluation in practice: Health and social work. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Krieger, N. (2010). The politics of legal status for Zimbabweans in South Africa. In J. McGregor & R. Primora (Eds.), Zimbabwe’s new diaspora: Displacement and the politics of survival (pp. 77–100). New York: Breghahn Books.Google Scholar
  64. Laher, H. (2010). Explaining xenophobic attitudes: Antagonism toward African immigrants in Johannesburg. South Africa: VDM Verlag.Google Scholar
  65. Landau, L. (2005). Immigration and the state of exception: Security and sovereignty in East and Southern Africa. Millennium Journal of International Studies, 34(2), 325–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Landau, L. (2006). Transplants and transients: Idioms of belonging and dislocation in inner-city Johannesburg. African Studies Review, 49(2), 125–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Landau, L. (2007). Discrimination and development? Immigration, urbanisation and sustainable livelihoods in Johannesburg. Development Southern Africa, 24(1), 61–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Landau, L. (2009). Living within and beyond Johannesburg: Exclusion, religion and emerging forms of being. African Studies, 68(2), 197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Landau, L. (2010). Discrimination and development? Migration, urbanisation and sustainable livelihoods in South Africa’s forbidden cities. In J. Crush & B. Frayne (Eds.), Surviving on the move: Migration, poverty and development in Southern Africa (pp. 66–79). Cape Town: IDASA and Development Bank of Southern Africa.Google Scholar
  70. Landau, L., & Polzer, T. (2007). Xenophobic violence, business formation and sustainable livelihoods: Case studies of Olievenhoutbosch and Motherwell. Centre for Development and Enterprise.Google Scholar
  71. Mamdani, M. (1996). Citizen and subject: Contemporary Africa and the legacy of late colonialism. London: James Currey.Google Scholar
  72. Mattes, R., Crush, J., & Richmond, W. (2002). The brain gain: Skilled migrants and immigration policy in post-apartheid South Africa. Migration Policy Series No. 20. Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  73. Mawadza, A., & Crush, J. (2010). Metaphors of migration: Zimbabwean migrants in the South African media. In J. Crush & D. Tevera (Eds.), Zimbabwe’s exodus: Crisis, migration, survival (pp. 363–376). Cape Town and Ottawa: Southern African Migration Programme.Google Scholar
  74. McDonald, D. A. (2000). Towards a better understanding of cross border migration in Southern Africa. In D. A. McDonald (Ed.), On borders: Perspectives on international migration in Southern Africa (pp. 1–11). Ontario: Southern African Migration Project.Google Scholar
  75. McGregor, J. (2010a). Diaspora and dignity: Navigating and contesting civic exclusion in Britain. In J. McGregor & R. Primora (Eds.), Zimbabwe’s new diaspora: Displacement and the politics of survival (pp. 122–143). New York: Breghahn Books.Google Scholar
  76. McGregor, J. (2010b). Between obligation, profit and shame: Zimbabwean migrants and the UK care industry. In J. Crush & D. Tevera (Eds.), Zimbabwe`s exodus: Crisis, migration and survival (pp. 179–206). Cape Town: Southern African Migration Project.Google Scholar
  77. McQuillan, M. (2009). Deconstruction after 9/11. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  78. Michlic, J. B. (2006). Poland’s threatening other: The image of the Jew from 1880 to the present. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Murray, M. J. (2010). City of extremes: The spatial politics of Johannesburg. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Muzondidya, J. (2010). Makwerekwere: Migration, citizenship and identity among Zimbabweans in South Africa. In J. McGregor & R. Primora (Eds.), Zimbabwe`s new diaspora: Displacement and the politics of survival (pp. 37–58). New York: Breghahn Books.Google Scholar
  81. Nayak, A., & Jeffery, A. (2011). Geographical thought: An introduction to ideas in Human Geography. England: Pearson.Google Scholar
  82. Ndenze, B., & Seale, L. (2013). Uproar over Zuma’s e-clanger. http://www.iol.co.za/news/politics/uproar-over-zuma. Accessed on October 25, 2013.
  83. Ndlovu-Gatsehi, S. J. (2009). Do Zimbabweans exist? Trajectories of nationalism, national identity formation and crisis in a post-colonial state. Oxford: Oxford and Bern.Google Scholar
  84. Neocosmos, M. (2006). From ‘foreign natives to native foreigners’, explaining xenophobia in post-apartheid South Africa: Citizenship and nationalism, identity and politics. Dakar: CODESIRA.Google Scholar
  85. Neocosmos, M. (2008). The politics of fear and the fear of politics: Reflections on xenophobic violence in South Africa. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 43(6), 586–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Norris, C. (2007). Fiction, philosophy and literary theory: Will the real Saul Kripke please stand up? London: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  87. Nyamnjoh, F. B. (2006). Insiders and outsiders: Citizenship and xenophobia in contemporary South Africa. Dakar: CODESIRA and Zed Books.Google Scholar
  88. Nyamnjoh, F. B. (2007). From bounded to flexible citizenship: Lessons from Africa. Citizenship Studies, 11(1), 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nyamnjoh, F. B. (2010). Racism, ethnicity and the media in Africa: Reflections inspired by studies of xenophobia in Cameroon and South Africa. Africa Spectrum, 45(1), 57–93.Google Scholar
  90. OECD. (2011). A growing but polarised city region. In OECD Territorial Reviews: The Gauteng City-Region, South Africa 2011. OECD.Google Scholar
  91. Palmary, I. (2002). Refugees, safety and xenophobia in South African cities: The role of local government. Johannesburg: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.Google Scholar
  92. Peberdy, S., & Majodina, Z. (2000). Just a roof over my head: Housing and Somali refugee community in Johannesburg. Urban Forum, 7(2), 273–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Regional Spatial Development Framework for Region F. 2010–2011. http://www.joburgarchive.co.za/2010/pdfs/sdf/regionalsdf/regionf/regionf1.pdf. Accessed July 12, 2012.
  94. Royle, N. (2003). Jacques Derrida. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sanchez-Prada, A., & Beyebach, M. (2014). Solution focused responses to ‘no improvement’: A qualitative analysis of the deconstruction process. Journal of Systematic Therapies, 33(1), 48–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sayer, A. (2000). Realism and social science. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Simonsen, K. (2012). In quest of a new humanism: Embodiment, experience and phenomenology as critical geography. Progress in Human Geography, 37(1), 10–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sowetan. (2015a April 15). Foreigners fight back. p. 1.Google Scholar
  99. Sowetan. (2015b April 13). Kind is right, illegal immigrants must go. p. 4.Google Scholar
  100. Sowetan. (2015c April 20). We will rape you: Xenophobic mob threatens to attack local women for dating a Zimbabwean man.Google Scholar
  101. Statistics South Africa. (2003). Census 2001: Census in brief. Report No 03-02-03(2001). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. www.statssa.gov.za/census01/html/CInbrief/CIB2001.pdf. Accessed May 6, 2014.
  102. Statistics South Africa. (2012). Census 2011 Statistical release – P0301.4. Pretoria. Statistics South Africa. www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P03014/P030142011.pdf. Accessed May 6, 2014.
  103. Statistics South Africa. (2013). Mid-year population estimates. Statistical release P0302. www.statssa.gov.za/Publications/P0302/P03022013.pdf. Accessed May 11, 2014.
  104. Stocker, B. (2006). Routledge philosophy guidebook to Derrida on Deconstruction. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sunday Times. (2008, May 18). Editorial. p. 6.Google Scholar
  106. Sunday Times. (2011b, January 2 ). Our future needs tough calls. p. 21.Google Scholar
  107. Sunday Times. (2011a, January 2). A living to be made from fear and loathing, so they say. p. 21.Google Scholar
  108. Sunday Times. (2012, January 29). Foreigners: The lifeblood of successful countries.. p. 12.Google Scholar
  109. Sunday Times. (2015a, April 5). Row over Kings Foreigners jibe amid frenzy of looting, killings. p. 10Google Scholar
  110. Sunday Times. (2015b, April 12). Burned alive in anti-foreigner rampage. p. 2.Google Scholar
  111. Sunday Times. (2015c, April 19). Kill thy neighbour: Alex attack brings home SA’S shame. p. 1.Google Scholar
  112. The Citizen. (2010, July 20). Fellow Africans worry over threats. p. 6.Google Scholar
  113. The Citizen. (2010, July 15). Rainbow nation’s dark side. p. 13.Google Scholar
  114. The Citizen. (2015, April 15). This is xenophobia. p. 1.Google Scholar
  115. The Guardian. (2015, April 20). Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/20/south-africa-xenophobic-violence-zulu-kinggoodwill-zwelithini. Accessed April 27, 2015.
  116. The Sowetan. (2010, June 2). Control the borders. p. 3.Google Scholar
  117. The Sowetan. (2010, July 14). Criminals are behind xenophobia. p. 13.Google Scholar
  118. The Sowetan. (2011, May 25). Talks can stop thugs causing xenophobia. p. 12.Google Scholar
  119. The Sowetan. (2011, November 14). Making sense of xenophobia. p. 9.Google Scholar
  120. The Sowetan. (2012, May 2). Foreigners do not benefit South Africa. p. 12.Google Scholar
  121. The Star. (2011, May 3). Law will strangle growth in South Africa. p. 10.Google Scholar
  122. The Star. (2011, May 19 ). Locals decide that it`s time for foreign traders to leave area. p. 16.Google Scholar
  123. The Star. (2011, June 2). Ramaphosa residents threaten Somali traders. p. 6.Google Scholar
  124. The Star. (27 March 2012). An alien in a country called home: Its business as usual, despite harassment and assaults. Google Scholar
  125. The Star. (2012, May 16). Boosting small businesses in townships key focus for Zuma. p. 5.Google Scholar
  126. The Star. (2012, October 25). Healthcare for immigrants in South Africa: It’s a long wait at the back of the queue. p. 15.Google Scholar
  127. The Star. (2013, May 22). Cauldron of xenophobia is again boiling. p. 4.Google Scholar
  128. The Star. (2013, May 29). Xenophobia rears its ugly head again. p. 4.Google Scholar
  129. The Star. (2013, August 15). Inner city set to come alive in the evening. Google Scholar
  130. The Star. (2013a, October 31). Indifference to xenophobic attacks. p. 2.Google Scholar
  131. The Star. (2013b, October 31). Hostility against foreigners is on the rise – experts. p. 13.Google Scholar
  132. The Star. (2013c, October 31). Another unfortunate shooting – Now the shops are shut. p. 13.Google Scholar
  133. Transport trends in the GCR–GCRO Gauteng City-Region. 2013. http://www.gcro.ac.za/gcr/review/2013/gcro/life-and-people/migration-and-gcr. Accessed July16, 2014.
  134. World Migration Report. (2000). International Organization for Migration and United Nations.Google Scholar
  135. Wylie, J. W. (2006). Poststructuralist theories, critical methods and experimentation. In S. Aitken & G. Valentine (Eds.), Approaches to human geography (pp. 298–310). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and Environmental StudiesUniversity of ZululandKwaDlangezwaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations