Actual Patterns of Migration Flows: The Challenge of Migration and Asylum in Contemporary Europe

Chapter

Abstract

Catherine Wihtol de Wenden analyses the implications of the refugee and migration crisis for the EU. She starts with the fact that, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, international migration reached 244 million people (i.e. 3.5% of the world population), with roughly the same number of flows going to the north (south–north and north–north: 120 million) as to the south (south–south and north–south: 130 million). This presents a new situation. Against this background, de Wenden maintains that all regions and countries are, in one way or another, part of the migration process by being involved in either emigration, immigration or transit flows (most of them in all three aspects together). As a result, categories such as ‘foreign workers’ and ‘asylum seekers’ are becoming increasingly blurry. The chapter also shows that new types of migrants—isolated women, unaccompanied children, circulating elites and experts—have entered into international mobility. At the same time, de Wenden reminds us that the right to move is among the least shared in the world: global mobility is highly segmented based on nationality, class, gender, race, etc. As well as this, the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall in Europe in 1989 brought about generalisation of the right to exit, with easy access to a passport, even in southern countries, along with more restricted rights to enter OECD countries.

References

  1. Ambrosini, M. (2013). Irregular migration and invisible welfare. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Castles, S., & Miller, M. (2014). The age of migration (4th ed.). London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cohen, R. (2008). Global diasporas: An introduction. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. de Gutcheneire, P., Pecoud, A., & Cholewski, R. (2009). Migration and human rights: The UN convention of migrants. Paris/Cambridge: UNESCO/Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  5. Hollifield, J. (1998–1999). Migration, trade and the nation state: The myth of globalization. UCLA Journal of International Law and Foreign Affairs, 3, 585–636.Google Scholar
  6. Massey, D., Arango, J., & Taylor, E. (1995). Words in motion. Oxford: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  7. Portes, A. (2003). Theoretical convergences and empirical evidence in the study of immigrant transnationalism. International Migration Review, 37, 814–892.Google Scholar
  8. Rosenau, J. (1990). Turbulence in world politics. Princeton: Princeton University.Google Scholar
  9. Sassen, S. (1996). Losing control? Sovereignty in an age of globalization. New York: Columbia University.Google Scholar
  10. Schmoll, C., Thiollet, H., & Wihtol de Wenden, C. (Eds.). (2015). Migrations en Méditerranée. Paris: CNRS Editions.Google Scholar
  11. Weiner, M. (1995). The global migration crisis: Challenges to states and to human rights. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  12. Wihtol de Wenden, C. (2013a). La question migratoire au XXIème siècle. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.Google Scholar
  13. Wihtol de Wenden, C. (2013b). Les nouvelles migrations: Hommes, lieux, politiques. Paris: Ellipses.Google Scholar
  14. Wihtol de Wenden, C. (2016). Atlas des migrations: Un équilibre mondial à inventer (4th ed.). Paris: Autrement.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre d’Études et des Recherches Internationales (CERI), Sciences PoParisFrance
  2. 2.Le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)ParisFrance

Personalised recommendations