Impairment, Disability, and Identity in the Middle Woodland Period: Life at the Juncture of Achondroplasia, Pregnancy, and Infection

Chapter
Part of the Bioarchaeology and Social Theory book series (BST)

Abstract

A rare case of pre-Columbian skeletal dysplasia from the Middle Woodland period provides a vehicle for exploring the complexities of interpreting impairment and disability from bioarchaeological remains and archaeological contexts. The skeletal remains of an adult woman and an associated fetus were excavated from an intrusive pit burial within Mound 3 at the Elizabeth site in the Lower Illinois Valley. The differential diagnosis revealed that the female was experiencing a combined skeletal dysplasia, a nearly full-term pregnancy, and a disseminated bone infection at the time of death. This chapter will demonstrate the difficulty of utilizing the terminology of impairment and disability in a bioarchaeological context and the complexities of interpreting the associated societal and cultural implications for the people involved.

Keywords

Achondroplasia Leri–Weill Dyschondrosteosis Skeletal dysplasia Bioarchaeology Paleopathology Middle Woodland period Impairment Disability Prehistoric dwarfism Identity Disability rights movement Native American folklore 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements to The Center for American Archeology and the Illinois State Museum for facilitating this research and to the Boston University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences for research funding. We are deeply grateful for the insightful and constructive comments from the reviewers and the editors of this volume. Many thanks to Taylor Thornton and Dr. Jason King for assisting with photography and Dr. Jonathan Bethard for comments and conversation during the writing process.

References

  1. Ablon, J. (1981). Dwarfism and social identity: Self-help group participation. Social Science & Medicine. Part B: Medical Anthropology, 15(1), 25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ablon, J. (1984). Little people in America: The social dimensions of dwarfism. New York, NY: Praeger.Google Scholar
  3. ADA Amendments Act of 2008. (2008). Pub. L. No. 110-325 § 3406.Google Scholar
  4. Adelson, B. M. (2005). The lives of dwarfs: Their journey from public curiosity toward social liberation. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Allanson, J. E., & Hall, J. G. (1986). Obstetric and gynecologic problems in women with chondrodystrophies. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 67(1), 74–78.Google Scholar
  6. Alva, W., Donnan, C. B., University of California, L. A., & Fowler Museum of Cultural History. (1993). Royal tombs of Sipán. Los Angeles, CA: Fowler Museum of Cultural History, University of California.Google Scholar
  7. Arcini, C., & Frölund, P. (1996). Two dwarves from Sweden: A unique case. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 6(2), 155–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arora, A. S., & Chung, K. C. (2006). Otto W. Madelung and the recognition of Madelung’s deformity. The Journal of Hand Surgery, 31(2), 177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aufderheide, A. C., & Rodríguez-Martin, C. (1998). The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bacon, W. J. (2007). The dwarf motif in Classic Maya monumental iconography: A spatial analysis. Dissertations available from ProQuest, 1–581.Google Scholar
  11. Barnes, C. (2000). A working social model? Disability, work and disability politics in the 21st century. Critical Social Policy, 20(4), 441–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berdon, W. E., Grossman, H., & Baker, D. H. (1965). Dyschondrostéose (Léri-Weill syndrome): Congenital short forearms, Madelung-type wrist deformities, and moderate dwarfism. Radiology, 85(4), 677–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernal, J. E., & Briceno, I. (2006). Genetic and other diseases in the pottery of Tumaco-La Tolita culture in Colombia-Ecuador. Clinical Genetics, 70(3), 188–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bertrand, B., Robbins Schug, G., Polet, C., Naji, S., & Colard, T. (2014). Age-at-death estimation of pathological individuals: A complementary approach using teeth cementum annulations. International Journal of Paleopathology (in press).Google Scholar
  15. Bianucci, R., Brothwell, D., van der Sanden, W., Papageorgopoulou, C., Gostner, P., Pernter, P., et al. (2012). A possible case of dyschondrosteosis in a bog body from the Netherlands. Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries, 4(1), 37–64.Google Scholar
  16. Bierhorst, J. (1998). The Deetkatoo: Native American stories about little people. HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  17. Bourke, J. B. (1971). The palaeopathology of the vertebral column in ancient Egypt and Nubia. Medical History, 15(04), 363–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buikstra, J. E. (1977). Biocultural dimensions of archeological study: A regional perspective. In R. L. Blakely & Southern Anthropological Society (Eds.), Biocultural adaptation in prehistoric America. Athens: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  19. Buikstra, J. E., & Charles, D. K. (1999). Centering the ancestors: Cemeteries, mounds, and sacred landscapes of the ancient North American Midcontinent. In W. Ashmore & A. B. Knapp (Eds.), Archaeologies of landscape: Contemporary perspectives (pp. 201–228). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  20. Cartwright, J. M. (1903). Isabella d’Este, marchioness of Mantua, 1474–1539: A study of the renaissance. E.P. Dutton.Google Scholar
  21. Charles, D. K., Leigh, S. R., & Buikstra, J. E. (1988). The Archaic and Woodland cemeteries at the Elizabeth site in the lower Illinois Valley. Kampsville, IL: Center for American Archeology.Google Scholar
  22. Cohen, M. M. (1998). Achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia: Clinically related skeletal dysplasias that are also related at the molecular level. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 27(6), 451–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cormier, A. (2015). Disability, care, and identity in the Middle Woodland period: Life at the juncture of achondroplasia, pregnancy, and treponematosis. Presented at the 84th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  24. Cormier, A., Buikstra, J. E., & Osterholtz, A. (n.d.). Overlapping genetic pathways in the skeletal dysplasias of a Middle Woodland individual: A case study. International Journal of Paleopathology (in Revisions).Google Scholar
  25. Cormier-Daire, V., Belin, V., Cusin, V., Viot, G., Girlich, D., Toutain, A., et al. (1999). SHOX gene mutations and deletions in dyschondrosteosis or Leri-Weill syndrome. Acta Paediatrica, 88, 55–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Curry, D. C. (1999). Feast of the dead: Aboriginal ossuaries in Maryland. Myersville, MD; Crownsville: Archeological Society of Maryland, Inc. ; Maryland Historical Trust Press.Google Scholar
  27. Dasen, V. (1990). Dwarfs in Athens. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 9(2), 191–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dasen, V. (1993). Dwarfs in ancient Egypt and Greece. Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  29. Eberhart, G. M. (2002). Mysterious creatures: A guide to cryptozoology. ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
  30. Edwards, M. (1997). Construction of physical disability in the Ancient Greek world: The Community Concept. In The body and physical difference: Discourses of disability (pp. 35–50). University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  31. Elder, G. H. (1998). The life course as developmental theory. Child Development, 69(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ellis, K. (2015). Introduction: Producerly disability. In Disability and popular culture : Focusing passion, creating community and expressing defiance. Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  33. Farnsworth, N., & Rosen, T. (2006). Endemic treponematosis: Review and update. Clinics in Dermatology, 24(3), 181–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Finkelstein, V. (1981). To deny or not to deny disability. In Handicap in a social world: A reader. Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar
  35. Fiorello, M. D. (2014). The physically disabled in ancient Israel according to the Old Testament and ancient Near Eastern sources. Authentic Media Inc.Google Scholar
  36. Fowke, G. (1902). Archaeological History of Ohio: The Mound Builders and Later Indians. Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society.Google Scholar
  37. Frayer, D. W., Horton, W. A., Macchiarelli, R., & Mussi, M. (1987). Dwarfism in an adolescent from the Italian late Upper Palaeolithic. Nature, 330(6143), 60–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Frayer, D. W., Macchiarelli, R., & Mussi, M. (1988). A case of chondrodystrophic dwarfism in the Italian late Upper Paleolithic. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 75(4), 549–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garland-Thomson, R. (2002). Politics of staring: Visual rhetorics of disability in popular photography. Disability studies: Enabling the humanities (pp. 56–75). New York: Modern Language Association of America.Google Scholar
  40. Gusinde, M. (1955). Pygmies and pygmoids: Twides of tropical Africa. Anthropological Quarterly, 28(1), 3–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hall, H. U. (1927). Dwarfs and Divinity in West-Africa. The Museum Journal (Pennsylvania University Museum), 18.Google Scholar
  42. Hamosh, A. (2013, October 9). OMIM 127300. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM ® Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD. http://www.omim.org/entry/127300. Accessed January 14, 2015.
  43. Hecht, J. T., Horton, W. A., Reid, C. S., Pyeritz, R. E., & Chakraborty, R. (1989). Growth of the foramen magnum in achondroplasia. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 32(4), 528–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Henderson, J. E., Naski, M. C., Aarts, M. M., Wang, D., Cheng, L., Goltzman, D., et al. (2000). Expression of FGFR3 with the G380R achondroplasia mutation inhibits proliferation and maturation of CFK2 chondrocytic cells. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 15(1), 155–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoover-Fong, J. E., Schulze, K. J., McGready, J., Barnes, H., & Scott, C. I. (2008). Age-appropriate body mass index in children with achondroplasia: Interpretation in relation to indexes of height. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88(2), 364–371.Google Scholar
  46. Hunter, A. G., Bankier, A., Rogers, J. G., Sillence, D., & Scott, C. I. (1998). Medical complications of achondroplasia: A multicentre patient review. Journal of Medical Genetics, 35(9), 705–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hunter, A. G., Reid, C. S., Pauli, R. M., & Scott, C. I. (1996). Standard curves of chest circumference in achondroplasia and the relationship of chest circumference to respiratory problems. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 62(1), 91–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hutchison, E. D. (2014). Dimensions of human behavior: The changing life course. SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  49. King, J., Buikstra, J., & Charles, D. (2011). Time and archaeological traditions in the lower Illinois valley. American Antiquity, 76(3), 500–528. doi: 10.7183/0002-7316.76.3.500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kozma, C. (2006). Dwarfs in ancient Egypt. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 140A(4), 303–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kozma, C. (2008). Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, 146A(23), 3104–3112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kruse, R. J., II. (2003). Narrating intersections of gender and dwarfism in everyday spaces. Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien, 47(4), 494–508.Google Scholar
  53. Langdon, S. P., Willey, P., & Cummins, R. W. (1993). The South Dakota reburial program and the discovery of a possible prehistoric dwarf. Plains Anthropologist, 38(145), 271–281.Google Scholar
  54. Leri, A., & Weill, J. (1929). Une affection congénitale et symétrique du développement osseux: la dyschondrostéose. Bull Mem Soc Med Hop Paris, 1491–1494.Google Scholar
  55. Lewis, M., Clark, W., & Allen, P. (1902). History of the Expedition Under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark: To the Sources of the Missouri, Across the Rocky Mountains, Down the Columbia River to the Pacific in 1804-6 : A Reprint of the Edition of 1814 to which All the Members of the Expedition Contributed. New Amsterdam Book Company.Google Scholar
  56. Little People of America FAQ. (2013). Little people of America. http://www.lpaonline.org/faq. Accessed August 22, 2015.
  57. Lovejoy, C. O. (1985). Dental wear in the Libben population: Its functional pattern and role in the determination of adult skeletal age at death. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 68(1), 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mackie, E. J., Ahmed, Y. A., Tatarczuch, L., Chen, K.-S., & Mirams, M. (2008). Endochondral ossification: How cartilage is converted into bone in the developing skeleton. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 40(1), 46–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marek, G. R. (1976). The Bed and the Throne: The Life of Isabella D’Este. Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  60. Miller, M. E. (1985). The dwarf motif in Classic Maya art. In M. Green Robertson & E. P. Benson (Eds.), Fourth Palendque Round Table, 1980 (pp. 141–153). San Francisco: Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute.Google Scholar
  61. Minozzi, S., Lunardini, A., Catalano, P., Caramella, D., & Fornaciari, G. (2013). Dwarfism in Imperial Rome: A case of skeletal evidence. Journal of Clinical Research & Bioethics, 2013. http://www.omicsonline.org/dwarfism-in-imperial-rome-a-case-of-skeletal-evidence-2155-9627.1000154.php?aid=17700. Accessed April 26, 2016.
  62. Mitchell, D. T., & Snyder, S. L. (1997). The body and physical difference: Discourses of disability. University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  63. Mortimer, J. T., & Shanahan, M. J. (2007). Handbook of the life course. Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  64. Munns, C., & Glass, I. (2008). SHOX-related haploinsufficiency disorders. In R. A. Pagon, M. P. Adam, H. H. Ardinger, T. D. Bird, C. R. Dolan, & C.-T. Fong, et al. (Eds.), GeneReviews(®). Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1215/. Accessed January 14, 2015.
  65. Oberklaid, F., Danks, D. M., Jensen, F., Stace, L., & Rosshandler, S. (1979). Achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia. Comments on frequency, mutation rate, and radiological features in skull and spine. Journal of Medical Genetics, 16(2), 140–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Oliver, M. (1990). The politics of disablement: A sociological approach. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  67. Oliver, M. (1996). Defining impairment and disability: Issues at stake. In Exploring the divide: Illness and disability (pp. 29–54). Disability Press.Google Scholar
  68. Oliver, M. (2013). The social model of disability: Thirty years on. Disability & Society, 28(7), 1024–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ortner, D. J. (2003). Identification of pathological conditions in human skeletal remains. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  70. Pachajoa, H., Rodríguez, C. A., & Isaza, C. (2009). Possible case of Morquio syndrome in the pottery of Tumaco-Tolita culture. Revista De Neurologia, 48(1), 52.Google Scholar
  71. Pachajoa, H., Rodríguez, C. A., & Isaza, C. (2010). Hemifacial microsomia (oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum) in Pre-Hispanic Tumaco-La Tolita ceramic culture (300 b.C. to 600 a.C.). Archivos De La Sociedad Española De Oftalmología, 85(4), 154–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pitts, J. (2002). Little people. The Missouri Review, 25(1), 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rayan, G. M., & Upton, J., III. (2014). Madelung deformity. In Congenital hand anomalies and associated syndromes (pp. 191–196). Berlin: Springer. http://link.springer.com.ezproxy.bu.edu/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-54610-5_14. Accessed June 16, 2015.
  74. Reid-Cunningham, A. R. (2009). Anthropological theories of disability. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rodríguez, C. A., Isaza, C., & Pachajoa, H. (2012). Achondroplasia among ancient populations of mesoamerica and South America: Iconographic and Archaeological Evidence. Colombia Médica, 43(3), 212–215.Google Scholar
  76. Ross, J. L., Bellus, G., Scott, C. I., Abboudi, J., Grigelioniene, G., & Zinn, A. R. (2003). Mesomelic and rhizomelic short stature: The phenotype of combined Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 116A(1), 61–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ruby, B. J., Carr, C., & Charles, D. (2006). Community organization in the Scioto, Mann, and Havana Hopewellian regions: A comparative perspective. In C. Carr & D. T. Case (Eds.), Gathering Hopewell: Society, ritual, and ritual interaction (pp. 119–176). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  78. Sables, A. (2010). Rare example of an early medieval dwarf infant from Brownslade, Wales. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 20(1), 47–53.Google Scholar
  79. Schmidt-Rohlfing, B., Schwöbel, B., Pauschert, R., & Niethard, F. U. (2001). Madelung deformity: Clinical features, therapy and results. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B, 10, 344–348.Google Scholar
  80. Sgheiza, V., Cox, M., & Hart, K. (n.d.). A Comparison of Two Late Woodland Features: Helton 20-36 and Carter 2-15 (in preparation).Google Scholar
  81. Shakespeare, T. (2006). Disability rights and wrongs. London; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  82. Shakespeare, T. (2013). The social model of disability. In L. J. Davis (Ed.), The disability studies reader (pp. 214–221). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  83. Shakespeare, T., & Watson, N. (1997). Defending the social model. Disability & Society, 12(2), 293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shohat, M., Flaum, E., Cobb, S. R., Lachman, R., Rubin, C., Ash, C., et al. (1993). Hearing loss and temporal bone structure in achondroplasia. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 45(5), 548–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sibbel, S. E., Bauer, A. S., & McCarroll, H. R. (2015). Madelung deformity. In D. R. L., Jr. (Ed.), Congenital anomalies of the upper extremity (pp. 317–324). Springer US. http://link.springer.com.ezproxy.bu.edu/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4899-7504-1_24. Accessed June 16, 2015.
  86. Slon, V., Nagar, Y., Kuperman, T., & Hershkovitz, I. (2013). A case of dwarfism from the Byzantine City Rehovot-in-the-Negev, Israel. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 23(5), 573–589.Google Scholar
  87. Snow, C. E. (1943). Two prehistoric Indian dwarf skeletons from Moundville. University, Ala.Google Scholar
  88. Snyder, S. L., & Mitchell, D. T. (2006). Cultural locations of disability. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sullivan, R. (1995). A brief journey into medical care and disease in ancient Egypt. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 88(3), 141–145.Google Scholar
  90. Sybert, V. P., & McCauley, E. (2004). Turner’s syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(12), 1227–1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. (1990). Pub. L. No. 101-336 § 12101–12213.Google Scholar
  92. Thompson, S., Shakespeare, T., & Wright, M. J. (2008). Medical and social aspects of the life course for adults with a skeletal dysplasia: A review of current knowledge. Disability and Rehabilitation, 30(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tilley, L. (2012). The bioarchaeology of care. The SAA Archaeological Record, 12(3), 39–41.Google Scholar
  94. Tilley, L., & Cameron, T. (2014). Introducing the index of care: A web-based application supporting archaeological research into health-related care. International Journal of Paleopathology, 6, 5–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tilley, L., & Oxenham, M. F. (2011). Survival against the odds: Modeling the social implications of care provision to seriously disabled individuals. International Journal of Paleopathology, 1(1), 35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vajo, Z., Francomano, C. A., & Wilkin, D. J. (2000). The molecular and genetic basis of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 disorders: The achondroplasia family of skeletal dysplasias, Muenke craniosynostosis, and Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans. Endocrine Reviews, 21(1), 23–39.Google Scholar
  97. Van Etten, C. A. (1999, September). Little people and disability from a personal and legal perspective. LPA Today, 50.Google Scholar
  98. Waldman, C. (2014). Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Infobase Publishing.Google Scholar
  99. Waller, D. K., Correa, A., Vo, T. M., Wang, Y., Hobbs, C., Langlois, P. H., et al. (2008). The population-based prevalence of achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia in selected regions of the US. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 146A(18), 2385–2389.Google Scholar
  100. Waters-Rist, A. L., & Hoogland, M. L. P. (2013). Osteological evidence of short-limbed dwarfism in a nineteenth century Dutch family: Achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia. International Journal of Paleopathology, 3(4), 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Webb, W. S., & Baby, R. S. (1957). The Adena people, no. 2. Columbus: Published for the Ohio Historical Society by the Ohio State University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Woo, E. J., Lee, W.-J., Hu, K.-S., & Hwang, J. J. (2015). Paleopathological study of dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia in a late joseon dynasty (South Korean) population. PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0140901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. World Health Organization. (1980). International classification of impairments, disabilities, and handicaps: A manual of classification relating to the consequences of disease. Geneva; [Albany, N.Y.]: World Health Organization ; [Sold by WHO Publications Centre USA].Google Scholar
  104. World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability and health: ICF. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  105. Wynne-Davies, R., Walsh, W. K., & Gormley, J. (1981). Achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia. Clinical variation and spinal stenosis. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, British Volume, 63-B(4), 508–515.Google Scholar
  106. Yu, S. (2006). The life-course approach to health. American Journal of Public Health, 96(5), 768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ArchaeologyBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.School of Human Evolution and Social ChangeArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations