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Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Root Hair Tip Growth: A Comparison with Pollen Tubes

Chapter

Abstract

The developmental program of roots is constantly modified according to environmental signals and often includes an elevation in the density of root hairs, which increases the root’s absorptive surface in an attempt to meet the ion and water demands of the plant. Root hairs emerge from certain epidermal cells and this depends on a complex genetic cascade. Once this has determined root hair cell fate, local wall loosening and turgor pressure initiate a bulge in the cell wall. The transition from root hair initiation to actual tip growth begins with the accumulation of secretory vesicles at the apical part of the bulge. A complex interplay between ion oscillations, cytoskeleton architecture, vesicle trafficking, cell wall metabolism and hormonal and environmental signals allows the root hair to maintain growth at the tip. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the core components regulating root hair tip growth, critically identifies challenges for future research and points to commonalities and differences with the current knowledge on pollen tube tip growth.

Keywords

Arabidopsis Calcium Cell wall Cytoskeleton Elongation Pollen tube Root hair ROPs ROS Tip growth 

Abbreviations

ACA

autoinhibited Ca2+-ATPase

ACT

ACTIN

ADF

actin-depolymerizing factor

AFs

actin filaments

AHA

Arabidopsis H+-ATPase

AIP1

AKT1 INTERACTING PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 1

ANX

ANXUR

ARK1

ARMADILLO REPEAT-CONTAINING KINESIN 1

ARP2/3 complex

actin-related protein 2/3 complex

ATPase

adenosine triphosphatase

ATSFH1

ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SHORT ROOT HAIR 1

AtSTP6

ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SUGAR TRANSPORTER 6

BAPTA

1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid

CA

constitutively active

[Ca2+cyt[

cytoplasmic calcium concentration

[Ca2+ER[

endoplasmic reticulum calcium concentration

[Ca2+ext[

extracellular calcium concentration

CaM

calmodulin

cAMP

cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CAP1

[CA2+]CYT-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN KINASE 1

CBLs

calcineurin B-like proteins

CBM3a

carbohydrate-binding module 3a

CDPK

calcium-dependent protein kinase

CESA

CELLULOSE SYNTHASE

CIPKs

CBL-interacting protein kinases

[Clcyt[

chloride concentration cytoplasmic

CMLs

calmodulin-like proteins

CMTs

cortical microtubules

CNGC

cyclic nucleotide-gated channel

cNMP

cyclic nucleotide

CNQX

6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione

CPK3

CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE 3

CRIB

Cdc42- and Rac-interactive binding

CrRLK1Ls

Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like kinases

CSC

cellulose synthase complex

CSLD

CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE D

CytB

cytochalasin B

DACC

depolarization-activated calcium channel

DCB

2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile

DN

dominant negative

DPI

diphenyleneiodonium

ECA1

ER-type Ca2+-ATPase

EGTA

ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid

EMTs

endoplasmic microtubules

EXP7

EXPANSIN7

F-actin

filamentous actin

FER

FERONIA

FH1 domain

formin homology 1 domain

FH2 domain

formin homology 2 domain

FRET

Förster resonance energy transfer

G-actin

globular actin

GAE6

UDP-D-GLUCURONATE 4-EPIMERASE 6

GAP

GTPase-activating protein

GDI

guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor

GDP

guanosine diphosphate

GEF

guanine nucleotide exchange factor

GFP

green fluorescent protein

GLR

glutamate receptor

GTP

guanosine triphosphate

GTPase

guanosine triphosphatase

HACC

hyperpolarization-activated calcium channel

HAK5

HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 5

HEK

human embryonic kidney

HG

homogalacturonan

IP3

inositol trisphosphate

LatB

latrunculin B

LePT1

Lycopersicon esculentum phosphate transporter 1

LRX1

LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT/EXTENSIN 1

MAPK/MPK

MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE

MCA1/2

MID1-COMPLEMENTING ACTIVITY 1/2

MICU

mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter

MOR1

MICROTUBULE ORGANIZATION 1

MRH2

MORPHOGENESIS OF ROOT HAIR 2

MSL2/3

MSCS-LIKE 2/3

MT

microtubules

MyoB1/2

myosin-binding proteins 1/2

NHX1-4

SODIUM HYDROGEN EXCHANGER 1-4

NOX

NADPH oxidase

ORF

open reading frame

OXI1

OXIDATIVE SIGNAL-INDUCIBLE1

PH

pleckstrin homology

pHcyt

cytoplasmic pH

pHext

extracellular pH

PIN2

PIN-FORMED 2

PI-4Kβ1

PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 4-OH KINASE β1

PI-4P

phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate

PI(4,5)P2

phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate

Plus(+) end

barbed actin filament end

PM

plasma membrane

PME

pectin methylesterase

PMEI

pectin methylesterase inhibitor

prf1

profilin 1

PRONE

plant-specific ROP nucleotide exchanger

PT

pollen tube

qRT-PCR

quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

RabA4b

RAB GTPASE HOMOLOGUE A4B

RBOH

RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGUE

RH

root hair

RHD2

ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 2

RHM1

RHAMNOSE BIOSYNTHESIS 1

RHS

root hair specific

RHS8

ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 8

RIC

ROP-INTERACTIVE CRIB MOTIF-CONTAINING PROTEIN

RIP

ROP INTERACTIVE PARTNER

RLK

receptor-like kinase

RNAi

RNA interference

ROPs

Rho-like GTPases from plants

ROS

reactive oxygen species

SCN1

SUPERCENTIPEDE1

SIMK

STRESS-INDUCED MAPK

SLAH3

SLAC1 HOMOLOGUE 3

SOD

superoxide dismutase

TAIR

The Arabidopsis Information Resource

TCH2

TOUCH2

T-DNA

transfer-DNA

TPC1

TWO-PORE CHANNEL 1

UER1

UDP-4-KETO-6-DEOXY-D-GLUCOSE-3,5-EPIMERASE-4-REDUCTASE 1

VGD1

VANGUARD1

VLN

VILLIN

WER

WEREWOLF

XEH

XYLOGLUCAN ENDOHYDROLASE

XTH

XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLUCOSYLASE/HYDROLASE

XUT1

XYLOGLUCAN-SPECIFIC GALACTURONOSYLTRANSFERASE 1

XXT

XYLOGLUCAN XYLOSYLTRANSFERASE

XyG

xyloglucan

YC3.6

Yellow Cameleon 3.6 (cytosolic calcium sensor)

YFP

yellow fluorescent protein

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biology Department, Integrated Molecular Plant Physiology ResearchUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Plant Biochemistry & Biotechnology Lab, Department of Agriculture, School of Agriculture, Food & NutritionUASC-TEICreteGreece

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