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We define the framework of classical physics as considered in the present book. We briefly point out its place in the history of physics and its relation to modern physics. As the prime example of a theory of classical physics we introduce Newtonian mechanics and discuss its limitations. This leads to and motivates the study of different formulations of classical mechanics, such as Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which are the subjects of later chapters. Finally, we explain why in this book, we take a mathematical perspective on central topics of classical physics.