The Baltic Sea: A Living Environment

  • Anna Szaniawska


Today’s Baltic Sea is the second-largest brackish water body worldwide after the Black Sea. It came into existence as a result of a series of natural transformations that took place over the last few thousand years, since the last European Ice Age. The changes that have been reported in the last 40 or 50 years have been due largely to human activities (Fig. 2.1).

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Szaniawska
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of OceanographyGdyniaPoland

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