Advertisement

The End: Atrocity in a State of Denial

  • Rachel Seoighe
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Compromise after Conflict book series (PSCAC)

Abstract

The Sri Lankan state’s official conflict narrative of the End was designed to deflect and deny responsibility for mass atrocity. It relied on a number of inter-relating discourses that were generated in the context of embedded, antagonistic social relations between the Sinhalese and the Tamils, the ‘internationalisaton’ of the conflict and its resolution, and the global paradigm of the ‘war on terror’ that allowed for easy depoliticisation and denigration of the LTTE. The overarching effect of these discourses was to facilitate the construction and consolidation of a national security state under the Rajapaksa government, which was characterised by techniques of denial and misrepresentation. This chapter sets out an analysis of Sri Lanka’s national security exceptionalism under Rajapaksa and examines the concentration of power under his Executive Presidency. At the End, the state relied heavily on techniques of denial to avoid external investigations, interventions and condemnation. These techniques were part of a carefully crafted discursive framework developed throughout the years of war and augmented at the End to facilitate and conceal the violence required to finish the war militarily. Domestically, the establishment of this conflict narrative necessitated a reliance on practices of state terror, to suppress dissent and induce support from the wider population. The national security state built by Rajapaksa relied on the state-sanctioned lexicon of war, which was perpetuated and consolidated by non-state actors.

Bibliography

  1. ‘A Cure Far Worse than the Disease’: Sri Lanka’s New Draft Counter Terrorism Law. Retrieved from https://www.srilankaacampaign.org/cure-far-worse-disease-sri-lankas-new-draft-counter-terrorism-law/
  2. Agamben, G. (1998). Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Amarasuriya, H. (2015). Elite Politics and Dissent in Sri Lanka. The South Asianist, 4(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  4. Amnesty International. (2009). Sri Lanka: Unlock the Camps in Sri Lanka: Safety and Dignity for the Displaced Now—A Briefing Paper. Retrieved February 4, 2017, from https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa37/016/2009/en/.
  5. Amnesty International. (2011). Sri Lanka: Repressive Laws Remain Despite End to State of Emergency. Amnesty International Press Release. Retrieved February 4, 2017, from https://www.amnesty.org/en/press-releases/2011/08/sri-lanka-repressive-laws-remain-despite-end-state-emergency/.
  6. Amnesty International. (2017). Sri Lanka Annual Report 2016/2017. Amnesty International. https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/asia-and-the-pacific/sri-lanka/report-sri-lanka/.
  7. Andersen, M. K., & Fernando, B. (2009). The Phantom Limb: Failing Judicial Systems, Torture and Human Rights Work in Sri Lanka: A Study of Police Torture in Sri Lanka. Copenhagen: Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims; Asian Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
  8. Antze, P., & Lambek, M. (1996). Introduction: Forecasting Memory. In P. Antze & M. Lambek (Eds.), Tense Past: Cultural Essays in Trauma and Memory (pp. xi–xxxviii). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Article 19. (2007). Article19 Statement on the Ban of Tamilnet in Sri Lanka—ICT for Peacebuilding (ICT4Peace). ICT for Peacebuilding. Retrieved February 4, 2017, from https://ict4peace.wordpress.com/2007/06/20/article19-statement-on-the-ban-of-tamilnet-in-sri-lanka/.
  10. Asian Human Rights Commission. (2010). The State of Human Rights in Sri Lanka in 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2017, from http://www.humanrights.asia/resources/hrreport/2010/AHRC-SPR-010-2010.pdf.
  11. BBC. (2012). Sri Lanka’s Sinister White Van Abductions. BBC News Asia.Google Scholar
  12. Bloom, M. M. (2003). Ethnic Conflict, State Terror and Suicide Bombing in Sri Lanka. Civil Wars, 6(1), 54–84. Retrieved February 4, 2017, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13698240308402526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Butler, J. (2004). Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  14. Centre for Policy Alternatives. (2011). Freedom of Expression on the Internet in Sri Lanka. Colombo.Google Scholar
  15. Centre for Policy Alternatives. (2013a). The Need to Repeal and Replace the Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA). Centre for Policy Alternatives. Retrieved February 4, 2017, from http://www.cpalanka.org/the-need-to-repeal-and-replace-the-prevention-of-terrorism-act-pta/.
  16. Centre for Policy Alternatives. (2013b). A List of Commissions of Inquiry and Committees Appointed by the Government of Sri Lanka (2006–2012). Colombo. Retrieved February 4, 2017, from https://www.scribd.com/document/85007346/A-List-of-Commissions-of-Inquiry-and-Committees-Appointed-by-the-Government-of-Sri-Lanka-2006-2012.
  17. Chaaminda, S. (2011). Sri Lanka. Politics and Ideology in the Sinhala Press: A Site of Power and Struggle. Dissenting Dialogues, 2.Google Scholar
  18. Channel 4. (2012). Sri Lanka’s Killing Fields: Sri Lanka’s Killing Fields: War Crimes Unpunished. Retrieved February 4, 2017, from http://www.channel4.com/programmes/sri-lankas-killing-fields/on-demand/52949-001.
  19. Chomsky, N. (2002). Pirates and Emperors, Old and New: International Terrorism in the Real World. London: Pluto.Google Scholar
  20. Cohen, S. (2001). States of Denial: Knowing About Atrocities and Suffering. Malden, MA: Polity.Google Scholar
  21. Committee to Protect Journalists. (2015). Journalists Killed in Sri Lanka. Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from https://cpj.org/killed/asia/sri-lanka/.
  22. Das, V., & Kleinman, A. (2000). Introduction. In V. Das et al. (Eds.), Violence and Subjectivity (pp. 1–18). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  23. Department of Census and Statistics. (2011). Enumeration of Vital Events: Northern Province Sri Lanka. Colombo.Google Scholar
  24. European Commission. (2009). Commission Statement on Sri Lanka GSP+ Report. European Commission News Archive. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=466.
  25. Feitlowitz, M. (1998). A Lexicon of Terror. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Fernando, B., & Weerawickrame, S. R. (2009). A Baseline Study on Torture in Sri Lanka. Hong Kong: Kowloon. Retrieved 5 February 2017, from http://www.ahrchk.net/pub/pdf/AHRC-PUB-004-2009-ABaselineStudyOnTortureSL.pdf.
  27. Forrest, D., & Amnesty International. (1996). A Glimpse of Hell: Reports on Torture Worldwide. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Ganeshalingham, V. S. (2009). Impact of the PTA on Fundamental Rights Recognized by the Constitution. In Sri Lanka: Prevention of Terrorism Act: A Critical Analysis. Colombo: Centre for Human Rights and Development.Google Scholar
  29. Gilbert, P. (1994). Terrorism, Security, and Nationality: An Introductory Study in Applied Political Philosophy. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Green, P., & Ward, T. (2004). State Crime: Governments, Violence and Corruption. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  31. Gutman, Y. (1985). Denying the Holocaust. Jerusalem: Shazar Library.Google Scholar
  32. Handunnetti, D. (2009). The Price of Media Freedom Is Death. The Sunday Leader. http://www.thesundayleader.lk/20090111/spotlight-1.htm.
  33. Hattotuwa, S. (2009). Terrorised Media. Index on Censorship, 38(1), 40–44. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1080/03064220802712183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hickman, T. R. (2005). Between Human Rights and the Rule of Law: Indefinite Detention and the Derogation Model of Constitutionalism. Modern Law Review, 68(4), 655–668. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1468-2230.2005.555_2.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hillyard, P. (1993). Suspect Community: People’s Experience of the Prevention of Terrorism Acts in Britain. London: Pluto Press in association with Liberty.Google Scholar
  36. Hogg, C. L. (2011). Sri Lanka: Prospects for Reform and Reconciliation. London: Chatham House. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from www.chathamhouse.org.Google Scholar
  37. Höglund, K., & Orjuela, C. (2013). Friction and the Pursuit of Justice in Post-war Sri Lanka. Peacebuilding, 1(3), 300–316. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21647259.2013.813171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hughes, D. (2013). Violence, Torture and Memory in Sri Lanka: Life After Terror. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Human Rights Watch. (2008). State Responsibility for “Disappearances” and Abductions in Sri Lanka. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from https://www.hrw.org/report/2008/03/05/recurring-nightmare/state-responsibility-disappearances-and-abductions-sri-lanka.
  40. Human Rights Watch. (2013). “We Will Teach You a Lesson”: Sexual Violence Against Tamils by Sri Lankan Security Forces. London. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from https://www.hrw.org/report/2013/02/26/we-will-teach-you-lesson/sexual-violence-against-tamils-sri-lankan-security-forces.
  41. International Crisis Group. (2007). Sri Lanka’s Human Rights Crisis. https://www.legal-tools.org/doc/f831f5/.
  42. International Crisis Group. (2011). Reconciliation in Sri Lanka: Harder than Ever. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-asia/sri-lanka/reconciliation-sri-lanka-harder-ever.
  43. IRIN News. (2009). Sri Lanka: UN Calls for “Maximum Restraint” to Protect Civilians. http://www.irinnews.org/report/84025/sri-lanka-un-calls-%E2%80%9Cmaximum-restraint%E2%80%9D-protect-civilians.
  44. Jackson, R., Murphy, E., & Poynting, S. (2010). Introduction: Terrorism, the State and the Study of Political Terror. In R. Jackson, E. Murphy, & S. Poynting (Eds.), Contemporary State Terrorism: Theory and Practice, 1–12. Routledge: Abingdon and New York.Google Scholar
  45. Jeganathan, P. (1998). In the Shadow of Violence: “Tamilness”; and the Anthropology of Identity in Southern Sri Lanka. In T. J. Bartholomeusz & C. R. De Silva (Eds.), Buddhist Fundamentalism and Minority Identities in Sri Lanka. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  46. Jeyaraj, D. B. S. (2010). Horror of a Pogrom: Remembering “Black July” 1983 | dbsjeyaraj.com. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from http://dbsjeyaraj.com/dbsj/archives/1545.
  47. Jeyaraj, D. B. S. (2012). Firmly Entrenched in Power Mahinda Must be Pondering Where to From Here? Retrieved February 14, 2017, from http://dbsjeyaraj.com/dbsj/archives/12513.
  48. Journalists for Democracy Sri Lanka. (2010). Introduction: Media Workers Killed in Sri Lanka (2004–2010). Journalists for Democracy Sri Lanka. http://www.jdslanka.org/index.php/killed-media-workers.
  49. Joyce, R., & Breau, S. (2013). The Responsibility to Record Civilian Casualties. Global Responsibility to Protect, 5(1), 28–55. Retrieved February 4, 2017, from http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/1875984x-00501003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kennedy, D. (2005). Reassessing International Humanitarianism: The Dark Sides. Speech delivered at Harvard Law School. Retrived from http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/dkennedy/speeches/TheDarkSides.pdf.
  51. Khalili, L. (2007). Heroes and Martyrs of Palestine: The Politics of National Commemoration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/3529/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kleinfeld, M. (2003). Strategic Troping in Sri Lanka: September Eleventh and the Consolidation of Political Position. Geopolitics, 8(3), 105–126. Retrieved February 4, 2017, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14650040412331307732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kleinfeld, M. (2005). Destabilizing the Identity? Territory Nexus: Rights-Based Discourse in Sri Lanka?s New Political Geography. GeoJournal, 64(4), 287–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kumara, S. (2010). US Cable Demonstrates Sri Lankan Government’s Collusion with Paramilitary Death Squads. World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2010/12/slwi-d29.html.
  55. Lanka Business Online. (2011). Sri Lanka Says Amnesty War Probe Allegations ‘Interference’. http://www.lankabusinessonline.com/sri-lanka-says-amnesty-war-probe-allegations-interference/.
  56. Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission. (2011). Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation. Colombo. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from https://www.scribd.com/document/318357258/Final-Llrc-Report.
  57. Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission Archives. (2010). Transcript—Gotabaya Rajapaksa. Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission Archives. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from https://llrclk.wordpress.com/2010/08/17/gotabaya-rajapaksa/.
  58. Lewis, D. (2010). The Failure of a Liberal Peace: Sri Lanka’s Counter-insurgency in Global Perspective. Conflict, Security & Development, 10(5), 647–671. Retrieved February 8, 2017, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14678802.2010.511509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mahindapala, H. L. D. (2012). Judging Sri Lanka Through Western Lenses. Sunday Observer.Google Scholar
  60. Manogaran, C. (1987). Ethnic Conflict and Reconciliation in Sri Lanka. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  61. Mickler, D. (2010). Darfur’s Dread: Contemporary State Terrorism in the Sudan. In R. Jackson, E. Murphy, & S. Poynting (Eds.), Contemporary State Terrorism: Theory and Practice (pp. 28–47). Abingdon: Routledge and Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  62. Minority Rights Group. (2011). No War, No Peace: The Denial of Minority Rights and Justice in Sri Lanka. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://minorityrights.org/publications/no-war-no-peace-the-denial-of-minority-rights-and-justice-in-sri-lanka-january-2011/.
  63. Mullin, C. (2014). Tunisia’s Revolution and the Domestic–International Nexus. In L. Sadiki (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of the Arab Spring: Rethinking Democratization (pp. 89–104). London: Routledge Handbooks Online.Google Scholar
  64. Nadarajah, S. (2005). Sri Lanka’s Vernacular Press and the Peace Process. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from http://asiafoundation.org/publication/sri-lanka-strategic-conflict-assessment-2005-vol-6-sri-lankas-vernacular-press-and-the-peace-process/.
  65. Nelson-Pallmeyer, J. (1992). Brave New World Order: Must We Pledge Allegiance? Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.Google Scholar
  66. Oberst, R. C. (1992). A War Without Winners in Sri Lanka. Current History, 91(563), 128–131.Google Scholar
  67. Pinto Jayawardena, K. (2007). A “Praxis” Perspective on Subverted Justice and the Breakdown of Rule of Law in Sri Lanka. In J. Joseph (Ed.), Sri Lanka’s Dysfunctional Criminal Justice System (pp. 36–62). Chai Wan: Asian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from www.ahrchk.net.Google Scholar
  68. Pinto-Jayawardena, K. (2010). Post-war Justice in Sri Lanka: Rule of Law, the Criminal Justice System and Commissions of Inquiry. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from http://www.icj.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/srilanka_impunity_18_01_20102.pdf.
  69. Primoratz, I. (2005). State Terrorism and Counter-terrorism. In G. Meggle (Ed.), Ethics of Terrorism and Counter-terrorism (pp. 69–82). Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag.Google Scholar
  70. Rajapaksa, M. (2010). Mahinda Chinthana: Sri Lanka: The Emerging Wonder of Asia.Google Scholar
  71. Rajasingham-Senanayake, D. (2001). Dysfunctional Democracy and the Dirty War in Sri Lanka. Asia Pacific, East-West Center, 52, 1–8.Google Scholar
  72. Rajasingham-Senanayake, D. (2009). Colonisation, Securitised Development and the Crisis of Civic Identity in Sri Lanka. In A. Pararajasingham (Ed.), Sri Lanka: 60 Years of ‘Independence’ and Beyond (pp. 329–359). Emmenbrücke: Centre for Just Peace and Democracy.Google Scholar
  73. Ramakrishnan, T. (2015). Sri Lanka War Crime Probe: Panel Rejects “Zero Civilian Casualties” Claim. The Hindu.Google Scholar
  74. Rampton, D. (2011). “Deeper Hegemony”: The Politics of Sinhala Nationalist Authenticity and the Failures of Power-Sharing in Sri Lanka. Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 49(2), 245–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Samaranayake, G. (1997). Political Violence in Sri Lanka: A Diagnostic Approach. Terrorism and Political Violence, 9(2), 99–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Seoighe, R. (2015). Discourses of Victimization in Sri Lanka’s Civil War: Collective Memory, Legitimacy and Agency. Social and Legal Studies, 25(3), 355–380.Google Scholar
  77. Sirilal, R. (2011). Sri Lanka Says U.N. War Crimes Report Threatens Peace Efforts. Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/27/columns-us-srilanka-un-idUSTRE73Q3JD20110427.
  78. Sluka, J. A. (Ed.). (2000). Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  79. Somasundaram, D. (1998). Scarred Minds: The Psychological Impact of War on Sri Lankan Tamils. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  80. Sooka, Y., & The Bar Human Rights Committee of England and Wales The International Truth & Justice Project, S.L. (2014). An Unfinished War: Torture and Sexual Violence in Sri Lanka 2009–2014. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://www.stop-torture.com/.
  81. Spencer, J. (2000). On Not Becoming a “Terrorist”: Problems of Memory, Agency and Community in the Sri Lankan Conflict. In V. Das et al. (Eds.), Violence and Subjectivity (pp. 120–140). Berkley, Los Angles and London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  82. Sri Lanka Campaign for Peace and Justice. (n.d.). What We Do—Sri Lanka Campaign for Peace and Justice. Sri Lanka Campaign. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from https://www.srilankacampaign.org/about-us/what-we-do/.
  83. Sri Lanka Media Watch. (2011). Appalling Journalism: Jon Snow and Channel 4 News on Sri Lanka. Colombo. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://engagesrilanka.com/images/AppallingJournalism.pdf.
  84. Straus, S. (2012). Retreating from the Brink: Theorizing Mass Violence and the Dynamics of Restraint. Perspectives on Politics, 10(2), 343–362. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from http://www.journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S1537592712000709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Svensson-McCarthy, A.-L. (1998). The International Law of Human Rights and States of Exception: With Special Reference to the Travaux Preparatoires and Case-Law of the International Monitoring Organs. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.Google Scholar
  86. Tamils Against Genocide. (2012). Sri Lanka’s White Vans: Dual Criminality of the Sri Lankan State and the Rajapakse Administration. Maryland, London, Auckland, Toronto and Zurich. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from www.TamilsAgainstGenocide.org.
  87. Tamils Against Genocide. (2013). Silencing the Press: An Analysis of Violence Against the Media in Sri Lanka. London: Tamils Against Genocide.Google Scholar
  88. Taussig, M. T. (1987). Shamanism, Colonialism, and the Wild Man: A Study in Terror and Healing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. The Economist. (2011). Sri Lanka: The Son Also Rises. The Economist.Google Scholar
  90. Thottam, J. (2009). Dying for Journalism: Lasantha Wickrematunge of Sri Lanka. TIME.Google Scholar
  91. Tjaden, J. D. (2012). The (Re-)Construction of “National Identity” Through Selective Memory and Mass Ritual Discourse: The Chilean Centenary, 1910. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 12(1), 45–63. Retrieved February 13, 2017, from http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1754-9469.2012.01156.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. United Nations. (2009). Civilian Casualties in Sri Lanka Conflict “Unacceptably High”—Ban. United Nations News. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=30984#.U7B2dY1dVj4.
  93. United Nations. (2011). Report of the Secretary-General’s Panel of Experts on Accountability in Sri Lanka. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from http://www.un.org/News/dh/infocus/Sri_Lanka/POE_Report_Full.pdf.
  94. United Nations. (2012). Report of the Secretary-General’s Internal Review Panel on United Nations Action in Sri Lanka. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from http://www.un.org/News/dh/infocus/Sri_Lanka/The_Internal_Review_Panel_report_on_Sri_Lanka.pdf.
  95. University Teachers for Human Rights-Jaffna. (2006). The Wider Implications of the Human Rights and Humanitarian Crisis. Jaffna. Retrieved February 5, 2017, from http://www.uthr.org/bulletins/bul41.htm.
  96. University Teachers for Human Rights-Jaffna. (2009). Let Them Speak: Truth about Sri Lanka’s Victims of War. Jaffna.Google Scholar
  97. Uyangoda, J. (2007). Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka: Changing Dynamics. Washington, DC: East-West Center Washington.Google Scholar
  98. Varatharajah, S. (2013). Forgotten Heroes of the Eelam War. The Weekend Leader.Google Scholar
  99. Wallace, M. (2010). Confronting Wrongs, Affirming Difference: The Limits of Violence, the Power of Nonviolence, and the Case of Nonviolent Intervention in Sri Lanka. Providence, RI: Brown University.Google Scholar
  100. Walton, O. (2012). Peace Building Without Using the Word “Peace”: National NGOs Reputational Management Strategies During a Peace-to-War Transition in Sri Lanka. Critical Asian Studies, 44(3), 363–390. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14672715.2012.711976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Weber, S. (2004). “War,” “Terrorism,” and “Spectacle”: On Towers and Caves. In S. Weber (Ed.), Theatricality as Medium (pp. 326–335). Fordham University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Wedagedara, A. (2011). The Continuing “State of Emergency” in Sri Lanka. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://www.idsa.in/idsacomments/TheContinuingStateofEmergencyinSriLanka_awedagedara_050911.
  103. Weiss, G. (2011). The Cage: The Fight for Sri Lanka and the Last Days of the Tamil Tigers. London: Bodley Head.Google Scholar
  104. Whall, H. J. (1995). The Right to Self-Determination: The Sri Lankan Tamil National Question. London: Tamil Information Centre.Google Scholar
  105. Wickrematunge, L. (2009). And Then They Came for Me. Sunday Leader Editorial. http://www.thesundayleader.lk/20090111/editorial-.htm.
  106. Zulaika, J., & Douglass, W. A. (1996). Terror and Taboo: The Follies, Fables, and Faces of Terrorism. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rachel Seoighe
    • 1
  1. 1.Middlesex University, UKLondonUK

Personalised recommendations