Advertisement

Degraded Coastal Wetland Ecosystems in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Rivers Delta Region of Bangladesh

  • Shafi Noor IslamEmail author
  • Sandra Reinstädtler
  • Albrecht Gnauck
Chapter
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 21)

Abstract

The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Rivers carry 6 million m3/s water and 2.4 billion tons of sediments annually into the Bay of Bengal, but it shows no tendency toward rapid seaward progradation. Bangladesh coastal region is gifted with vast natural resources, delta, tidal flat, mangrove forests, march, lagoon, bars, spilt, estuary and coastal ecological environment which is very much potential for communities survival. There are 36.8 million people are living within the coastal region and dependent on coastal water resources. The coastal water resources are drastically reducing due to unplanned use by the community and the stakeholders. The coastal zone of Bangladesh is enormously important for the development and management of natural resources. The coastal water resources are playing an important role to protect the coastal ecosystems and socio-economy. The present situation stated that an integrated natural resource management plan is necessary for the protection of coastal ecosystem and coastal community livelihoods. The paper prepared based on primary and secondary data sources. The objectives of this study are to analyze the present coastal natural resources management status. The study seeks the deltaic wetlands ecosystem development and management strategies for ensure communities livelihood and sustainable development of coastal resources in Ganges-Brahmaputra Rivers deltaic coastal floodplain region in Bangladesh.

Keywords

Coastal wetland Ecosystem Ganges-Brahmaputra delta Deg-radation and management 

References

  1. Adeel MM (2001) Effect of water resources from upstream water diversion in the Ganges Basin. J Environ Q 30(Environmental Issue):356–368Google Scholar
  2. Adeel Z, Pomeray R (2002) Assessment and management of mangrove ecosystems in developing countries. Trees 16(2–3):235–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed I, Deaton BJ, Sarker R, Virani T (2008) Wetland ownership and management in a common property resource setting: a case study of Hakaluki Haor in Bangladesh. Ecol Econ 68(1–2):429–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akter, J Islam SN and Gnauck A (2010) Water resources management in the coastal region of Bangladesh. In: Modelling and simulation of ecosystems. Workshop Kolpinsee 2009, Aachen, Shaker-Verlag, pp 167–185Google Scholar
  5. Anon (1995) Integrated resource management plan of the Sundarbans reserved forest Vol. 1. Draft final report of FAO/ UNDP project BGD/84/056- Integrated resource development of the Sundarbans resource forest, Khulna, Bangladesh, 385 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Anwar J (1988) Geology of coastal area of Bangladesh and recommendation for resource development and management. In: National workshop on coastal area resource development and management, Part II. CARDMA, Dhaka, pp 36–56Google Scholar
  7. Begum K (1987) Tension over Farakka Barrage in South Asia – a techno political angel. University press, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  8. Biksham G, Andrea FS (1996) What price prawn? Shrimp aquaculture’s impact in Asia. Environment 38(7):12–14.33Google Scholar
  9. Broadus JM (1993) Possible Impact of and adjustment to sea level rise: the cases of Bangladesh and Egypt. In: Warrick RA, Barrow EM, Wigley TML (eds) Climate and sea-level change; observations, projections and implication. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 263–275Google Scholar
  10. CEGIS- Centre for Environmental and Geological Information services (2010) In: Slingerland K, Bons K, Driel WV (eds) Identification mission K2K, water Mondiaal delta alliance reconnaissance visit to Dhaka Bangladesh, mission report (Draft), 20–24 June 2010. Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  11. Chowdhury NT (2009) Water management in Bangladesh: an analytical review. Water policy uncorrected proof. IWA publishing, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  12. Chowdhury ZU, Haque A (1990) Permissible water withdrawal based upon prediction of salt-water intrusion in the Meghna delta. In: The hydrological basin for water resources management Proceedings of the Beijing symposium, October 1990, IAITS Publ. no. 197, pp 111–117Google Scholar
  13. Coleman JM (1969) Brahmaputra river: channel processes and sedimentation. Sediment Geol 3(2–3):129–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Costanza R (1992) Toward an operational definition of health. In: Costanza R, Norton B, Haskell BD (eds) Ecosystem health – new goals for environmental management. Inland Press, Washington, DC, pp 239–256Google Scholar
  15. Curray JR, Moore DG (1971) Growth of the Bengal deep sea and denudation in the Himalayas. Geol Soc Am Bull 82:563–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dasgupta P (2001) Human well-being and the natural environment. Oxford University press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dutta AK, Iftekhar MS (2004) The species survival in the homestead forests of salt affected areas: a perception analysis for Bangladesh. J Biol Sci 4(3):309–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. EGIS – (Environmental Geographical Information Services) (1997) Morphological dynamics of the Brahmaputra-Jamuna River. Water Resources Planning Organization/Delft Hydraulicc, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  19. EGIS – (Environmental and Geographical Information Services) (2000) Environmental baseline of Gorai River restoration project, EGIS-II. Bangladesh Water Development Board, Ministry of Water Resources, Government of Bangladesh, DelftGoogle Scholar
  20. ESCAP – (Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific) (1988) Coastal environment management plan for Bangladesh, Final: Report, vol 2. ESCAP, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  21. FAP (Flood Action Plan) 24 (1996) River servey project- morphology of Gorai off-take: special report no.10, Dhaka. WARPO. FAP 4 (FPCO), 1993. Draft final report, vol 3: morphological studies. Ministry of irrigation, Bangladesh (unpublished)Google Scholar
  22. FAP – (Flood Action Plan) 4 (FPCO) (1999) Draft final report, vol 3: morphological studies. Ministry of Irrigation, Bangladesh (unpublished)Google Scholar
  23. Gleick P (1998) The world’s water. Island Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  24. GOB – (Government of Bangladesh) (1999) National water policy, ministry of water resources. Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  25. Goodbred SL, Kuehl SA (2000) Late quaternary evolution of the Ganges –Brahmaputra river delta: significance of high sediment discharge and tectonic process on margin sequence development. Sediment Geol 133:227–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goodbred SL, Nicholls R (2004) Towards integrated assessment of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. Proceeding of the 5th International conference on Asian Marine Geology, and 1st Annual meeting of IGCP475 Delta and APN Mega-Delta, 13th February, 2004Google Scholar
  27. Gopal B, Wetzel G (1995) Limnology in developing countries, vol I. International Association for Limnology, New Delhi, pp 1–230Google Scholar
  28. Greensmith JT, Tucker EV (1986) Compaction and consolidation. In: van de Plassche O (ed) Sea-level research: a manuel for the collection and evaluation of data. Geo books, Norwich, pp 591–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grigg NS (1996) Water resources management principles, regulation and cases. McGraw Hill, Washington, DC, pp 8–14Google Scholar
  30. Halcrow (1993) Southwest area water resources management project (FAP 4) morphological studies. FPCO, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  31. Harvey LDD (2000) Climate and global environmental change. Pearson Education Ltd, Essex, pp 187–207Google Scholar
  32. Hasan S, Mulamoottil G (1994) Natural resource management in Bangladesh. Ambio 23(2):141–145Google Scholar
  33. Helmer R, Hespanhol I (eds) (1997) Water pollution control. A guide to the use of water quality management principles. E& FN SPON, London, pp 304–316Google Scholar
  34. Hidayati D (2000) Coastal management in ASEAN countries -the struggle to achieve sustainable coastal development. UN University Press, Tokyo, pp 1–74Google Scholar
  35. Hughes R, Ahmed S, Clayton BD (1994) Floodplains or flood plann? A review of approaches to water management in Bangladesh. IIED, London, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  36. IECO (1980) Southwest regional plan: supplement e: saline intrusion and tidal hydraulics; supplement f: environment and ecology (part I & II), supplement g: fishery (part I & II), Supplement h: forestry (part I&II), supplement i: navigation; supplement j: augmentation of the dry-season flows of the Ganges. Bangladesh Water Development Board, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  37. Iftekhar MS (2006) Conservation and management of the Bangladesh coastal ecosystem: overview of an integrated approach. Nat Res Forum 30(2006):230–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. IPCC – (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007) Summary for policymakers, In: Parry O F Canziani, Palutikot PJ, et al. (ed) Climate change 2007: impact adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC ML, Cambridge university press, 1000 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Islam MS (2001) Sea-level changes in Bangladesh: last ten thousand years. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Asiatic Civil Military Press, Dhaka, pp 1–185Google Scholar
  40. Islam SN (2014) Biosphere reserve, heritage identity and ecosystem services of Sundarbans transnational site between Bangladesh and India. In: The proceedings of the International conference “The to [World Heritage], BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, 23–25 October 2014 organized by IAWHP-International Association of World Heritage Professionals e.v [online] (http://www.iawhp.com) No 1, pp 225–244
  41. Islam SN (2016) Deltaic floodplains development and wetland ecosystems management in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers delta in Bangladesh, Sustain Water Resour Manag Springer, 2(3): 237–256.  10.1007/s40899-016=0047-6
  42. Islam SN, Gnauck A (2007a) Effects of salinity intrusion in mangrove wetlands ecosystems in the Sundarbans: an alternative approach for sustainable management. In: Okruszko T, Jerecka M, Kosinski K (eds) Wetlands: monitoring modelling and management. Taylor & Francis, Balkema, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  43. Islam SN, Gnauck A (2007b) Increased salinity in the Ganges delta and impacts on coastal environment in Bangladesh. In: Skvorsova LA (ed) Proceedings of the international scientific-practical conference logistics and economics of resource and energy- saving in industries (ISPC “LEREI -2-2007”) 12th September to 15th September 2007 at Saratov State Technical University, Russia, pp 244–248Google Scholar
  44. Islam SN, Gnauck A (2008) Mangrove wetland ecosystems in Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh Front Earth Sci China. Higer Education Press and Springer Verlag, 2(4):439–448Google Scholar
  45. Islam SN, Gnauck A (2009a) Threats to the Sundarbans mangrove wetland ecosystems from trans boundary water allocation in the Ganges basin: a preliminary problem analysis. Int J Ecol Econ Stat (IJEES). 13, W09; Winter 2009, J. Ecol. Econ. Stat; CESER, India. 64–78Google Scholar
  46. Islam SN, Gnauck A (2009b) The Coastal mangrove wetland ecosystems in the Ganges delta: a case study on the Sundarbans in Bangladesh. In Proceeding of American Association of Petroleum Geologist – AAPG Hedberg conference on variations in fluvial-deltaic and coastal reservoirs deposited in tropical environments, 29th April to 2nd May, 2009, Jakarta, pp 26–29Google Scholar
  47. Islam SN, Reinstädtler S, Gnauck A (2016) Coastal environmental degradation and ecosystem management in the Ganges deltaic region in Bangladesh. Int J Ecol Econ Stat 37(4):59–77Google Scholar
  48. Jabbar MA (1979) Land accretion in the coastal area of Bangladesh- Report of Bangladesh landsat programme, Dhaka, pp 43Google Scholar
  49. Jalal KF (1988) Towards a national strategy on coastal resources management in Bangladesh. In: National workshop on coastal area resource development and management, Part II. CARDMA, pp 67–78Google Scholar
  50. Joseph PS (2006) The environmental management the better supply of fresh water in transboundary river: the ganges could run dry. In: Perez JG (ed) Proceedings of III international symposium on transboundary waters management-overcoming water management boundaries. Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. 30 May−2 June, Ciudad RealGoogle Scholar
  51. Kan F, Feoli E (1999) GIS technology and spatial analysis in coastal zone management. In: Belfiore S (ed) Education and training in integrated coastal area management: the Mediterranean prospect. Ocean change pub, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  52. Khan AA (1993) Freshwater wetlands in Bangladesh: Opportunities and options. In: Nishat A, Hussain Z, Roy MK, Karim A (eds) Freshwater wetlands in Bangladesh issues and approaches for management. IUCN, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  53. Khan SM, Haq E, Hug S, Rahman AA, Rashid SMA, Ahmed H (1994) Wetlands of Bangladesh. Holyday Printers, Dhaka, pp 1–88Google Scholar
  54. Khondokar RA (1987) Origin of elevated Barind-Madhupur areas, Bengal basin, result of neotechtonicalactivities Bangladesh. J Geol 6(2):1–9Google Scholar
  55. Miah MM (1989) Siltation and coastal zone management; Bangladesh country study, Report BIDS, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  56. Miah MA (2001) Effect on water resources from upstream water diversion in the Ganges Basin. J Environ Qual 30(2):356–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Milliman JD, Broadus JM, Gable F (1989) Environmental and economic implication of rising sea level and subsiding deltas: the Nile and Bengal examples. Ambio 18(6):340–345Google Scholar
  58. Morgan JP, Mcentire WG (1959) Quarternary geology of the Bengal basin, East Pakistan and India. Bull Geol Soc Am 70:319–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. MoWR – (Ministry Of Water Resource) (2005) The national coastal zone policy. Ministry of water Resources, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  60. Nair KS (2004) Wetlands management to meet the food and water cricis. In: Abstract book of 7th INTECOL, international conference on wetlands, 25–30 July 2004. Utrecht, The Netherlands, pp 1–217Google Scholar
  61. Nishat A (1988) Review of the present activities and state of art of the coastal areas of Bangladesh. In: National workshop on coastal area resource development and management, Part II. CARDMA, Dhaka. pp 23–35Google Scholar
  62. Nishat A, Huq SM, Barua I, Reza S, Ali AHM, Moniruzzaman KAS (2002) Bioecological zones of Bangladesh. IUCN – the World Conservation Union. Bangladesh Country Office, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  63. Pramanik MAH (1983) Remote sensing applications to coastal morphological investigations in Bangladesh, unpublished PhD thesis, Dept. of Geography and Environment, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, 227 ppGoogle Scholar
  64. Rahman A (1988) Bangladesh coastal environment and management. In: National workshop on coastal area resource development and management, Part II. CARDMA, Dhaka, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  65. Rahman A (ed) (2003) The degraded sundarbans. In: Paribesh Patra (Bengali) development magazine, issue 3, 4 October December 2002 and January–March 2003. Unnayan Shamunnay, Dhaka, Ministry of Environment and Forest and UNDP. Dhaka, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  66. Sarkar SU (1993) Faunal diversity and their conservation in freshwater wetlands. In: Freshwater wetlands in Bangladesh: issues and approaches for management. IUCN, Gland, pp 1–364Google Scholar
  67. Sarker MH, Huque I, Alam M, Koudstaal R (2003) Rivers, chars and char dwellers of Bangladesh. Int J River Basin Manag 1(1):61–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. SRDI (Soil Resource Development Institute) (2000) Soil salinity in Bangladesh. Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Soil Resource Development Institute, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  69. Tan CY, Yahya J, Rahim KA, Ghee LT, Meyer AS, Othman MSH, Sivalingam G (1997) Environment and development in a resource-rich economy: Malaysia under the new economic policy. USA: Harvard Institute for International Development. CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  70. Umitsu M (1993) Late quaternary sedimentary environments and landforms in the Ganges delta. Sed Geol 83(3–4):177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Williams CA (1919) History of the rivers in the Gangetic Delta 1750–1918. Bengal secretariat Press. Calcutta. (Reprinted 1966, East Pakistan Inland Water Transport authority, Dhaka), 99 ppGoogle Scholar
  72. Wolanski E (2007) Estuarine ecohydrology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 157Google Scholar
  73. Wolanski E, Brinson MM, Cahon DR, Perillo ME (2009) Coastal wetlands: a synthesis. Coastal wetlands- an integrated ecosystem approach, Elsevier, New York, pp 1–62Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shafi Noor Islam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sandra Reinstädtler
    • 2
  • Albrecht Gnauck
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Geography, Development and Environmental StudiesUniversity of Brunei Darussalam (UBD)Bandar Seri BegawanBrunei Darussalam
  2. 2.Department of Environmental PlanningBrandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-SenftenbergCottbusGermany
  3. 3.Department of Ecosystems and Environmental InformaticsBrandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-SenftenbergCottbusGermany

Personalised recommendations