Impact of Urbanization on the Evolution of Mangrove Ecosystems in the Wouri River Estuary (Douala Cameroon)

  • Ndongo DinEmail author
  • Vanessa Maxemilie Ngo-Massou
  • Guillaume Léopold Essomè-Koum
  • Eugene Ndema-Nsombo
  • Ernest Kottè-Mapoko
  • Laurant Nyamsi-Moussian
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 21)


Cameroon mangroves are protected over 20 years by both Management of Forest and Fauna and Environmental Management Legal Framework laws. However, these juridical tools are not efficient in the field regarding the rate of mangrove forest depletion around coastal cities in the country. This work aims to identify the main factors of mangrove degradation and to assess their effects on the dynamics and evolution of this ecosystem in relation with city development. Key abiotic parameters are favorable for mangrove progression. Natural disasters and anthropogenic activities have been identified as responsible of mangrove ecosystems depletion. Wood harvesting, urban settlement and infrastructures, sand extraction, petroleum exploitation, coastal erosion, and climate change appear to be the most important factors of mangrove degeneration. Secondary destructive factors such as dwellings, sustenance agriculture, collection of Non-Timber Forest Products, digging, landfill, dyke construction and large clear-felling also contributed widely to mangrove degradation. The realization of state projects had heavily impacted the evolution of mangroves in the Wouri river estuary. In the absence of law and specific regulation implementation strategies, populations have taken advantage of the authorities’ tolerance to invade all mangroves areas around the Wouri river estuary. The management of Cameroon mangrove ecosystems faced the population conception of considering mangroves as an ordinary forest. Mangrove degradation along the Wouri river estuary does not seem raising advocacy in spite of the fact that this especial ecosystem could never change its coastal nature place like other artificial generated forests.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ndongo Din
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vanessa Maxemilie Ngo-Massou
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guillaume Léopold Essomè-Koum
    • 1
  • Eugene Ndema-Nsombo
    • 3
  • Ernest Kottè-Mapoko
    • 1
  • Laurant Nyamsi-Moussian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Faculty of ScienceThe University of DoualaDoualaCameroon
  2. 2.Department of Biological Sciences, High Teacher’s Training CollegeThe University of Yaounde IYaoundeCameroon
  3. 3.Department of Aquatics Ecosystem’s Management, Institute of Fisheries and Aquatic SciencesThe University of DoualaDoualaCameroon

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