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Returning the Tide to Dikelands in a Macrotidal and Ice-Influenced Environment: Challenges and Lessons Learned

  • Laura K. Boone
  • Jeff Ollerhead
  • Myriam A. Barbeau
  • Allen D. Beck
  • Brian G. Sanderson
  • Nic R. McLellan
Chapter
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 21)

Abstract

The objectives of this chapter are to (1) document lessons learned from the design, implementation and monitoring of a salt marsh restoration in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada, and (2) consider how the lessons can be applied to future restoration projects. The Fort Beauséjour salt marsh restoration sites are exposed to very large tides (up to 14 m), waves, and snow and ice in winter. This project involved a managed re-alignment, with two restoration cells and two reference sites. Before breaching, design criteria were established (e.g., the restoration cells must fully flood at high tide and drain slowly) and a hydrodynamic model was used to test breaching options. Pre-restoration monitoring was completed in 2009–2010, the old dike was breached in October 2010, and post-breach monitoring commenced thereafter. Measurements of water level, velocities, and discharge at one breach, compared very well to model predictions. Likewise, patterns of sediment deposition were as predicted, and sedimentation rates were as expected based on empirical studies done in the area. The bioengineering species saltwater cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) took 2 years to colonize the cells; it initially spread vegetatively and then by seeds. Plant cover became extensive in year 5 post-breach. Invertebrate and salt pool biological communities are lagging behind. Lessons learned include: (1) plan for future conditions and provide adequate accommodation space for development of a new marsh; (2) multi-level partnerships are critical to the success of such projects; (3) monitoring with a research focus ensures observation and quantification of unexpected phenomena; and (4) the design process used, including the hydrodynamic model, was successful and can be used again for similar situations.

Keywords

Bay of Fundy Ice Macrotidal Restoration Salt marsh Salt pool Sedimentation Spartina 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Rhiana Bams, Allie Byrne, Vicki Connors, Kristie Duncan, Andrew Ollerhead, Léa Olsen, Rosie Smith, Cindy Spicer and Norma Jean Worden-Rogers associated with Mount Allison University for field assistance; Cody Alderson, Allison Dykstra, Lionel Hayter, Meagan Hicks, Kelsey Mann, Dylan Schneider, Isaac Thomas, Tyler Trask and Spencer Virgin associated with UNB, and Rachel Bood, Lauren Harrison, Christine McLauchlan and Sara Thomas associated with Acadia University for field sampling and data collection; CBWES Inc., namely Tony Bowron, Jennie Graham and Nancy Neatt, for field assistance and data compilation; Jana Cheverie and Wade Lewis for various support from DUC; James Bornemann for GIS support; Mike Brylinski for nekton data; Birds Studies Canada for assistance with bird sampling; and Amanda Marlin and Spencer Virgin for comments on the chapter. Funding for various aspects of this project came from many sources including NB Environmental Trust Fund, NB Department of Transportation and Infrastructure, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (Small Craft Harbours Division), NB Department of Agriculture, Aquaculture and Fisheries, DUC, MITACS, Mount Allison University and University of New Brunswick as mentioned in the text, as well as Atlantic Climate Adaptation Solutions Association, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Science Horizons Youth Internship Program (Environment Canada), NB Department of Post-Secondary Education and Training (Student Employment and Experience Development), Canada Summer Job Program (Service Canada), and TD Canada Trust (a Community Leadership Scholarship).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura K. Boone
    • 1
  • Jeff Ollerhead
    • 2
  • Myriam A. Barbeau
    • 1
  • Allen D. Beck
    • 1
  • Brian G. Sanderson
    • 3
  • Nic R. McLellan
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Geography and EnvironmentMount Allison UniversitySackvilleCanada
  3. 3.Acadia Centre for Estuarine ResearchAcadia UniversityWolfvilleCanada
  4. 4.Ducks Unlimited CanadaAmherstCanada

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