Mangrove Inventory, Monitoring, and Health Assessment

  • AjaiEmail author
  • H. B. Chauhan
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 21)


Mangroves occur world-wide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between 32°N and 38°S latitudes. These are assemblages of salt tolerant shrubs and trees that grow along the inter-tidal regions in the form of narrow strips or as extensive patches in estuarine habitats and river deltas. Mangroves or Mangal perform many important functions in the coastal and marine environment as well as provide vital and unique ecosystem goods and services including livelihood of coastal people in terms of forest produce and fishery resources. In spite of its ecological and economic significance, mangroves are under threat from human activities in addition to natural causes. The anthropogenic threats to this ecosystem include reclamation of mangrove areas for human habitation, aquaculture, agriculture, port and industrial development. Conservation and management of the mangrove ecosystem requires spatial inventory of mangrove cover, its type and canopy density as well as its monitoring with time. The physical conditions and harsh environment in and around the mangrove forest make the conventional methods of data collection extremely difficult. Under such conditions, data from remote sensing satellites provide a viable option for mapping and monitoring of mangroves.

Mangroves, their importance and threats to this vital ecosystem are discussed here. Remote sensing techniques and its application in the context of mangroves have been briefly discussed. Use of satellite data for mapping and monitoring of mangrove forests has also been described in this chapter. Methodology for spatial inventory of mangroves at community level along with canopy density is also presented in detail. Case studies on the inventory and monitoring of mangroves have also been discussed. A model for mangrove health assessment, based on the satellite data and conventional inputs, have been developed and presented here. This multi-parameter health assessment model has been discussed and demonstrated through a case study from India.


Mangroves Inventory and monitoring Remote sensing Earth observations Mangrove health model Coastal ecosystems 


  1. Ahmad E (1972) Coastal geomorphology of India. Orient Longman, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajai (2004) Mapping from high-resolution satellite images and global positioning systems. Sci Lett (Nat Acad) 27:329–333Google Scholar
  3. Ajai et al. (2012) Coastal zones of India, Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad, pp 61–252, ISBN No. 978-81-909978-9-8Google Scholar
  4. Ajai, Bahuguna A, Chauhan HB, Sarma KS, Bhattacharya S, Ashutosh S, Pandey CN, Thangaradjou T, Gnanppazham L, Selvam V, Nayak SR (2013) Mangrove inventory of India at community level. Natl Acad Sci Lett 36(1):67–77. doi: 10.1007/S 40009-012-0087-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aksornkae S, Paphavasit N, Wattayakorn (1993) In: Clough BE (ed) Mangroves of Thailand: present status of conservation, use and management. The economic and environmental values of mangrove forests and their present state of conservation in South East Asia/Pacific region, Mangrove Ecosystem technical Report −1. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, pp 83–133Google Scholar
  6. Allingham DP, Neil DT (1995) The supratidal deposits and effects of coral dredging on Mud Island, Moreton Bay, South east Queensland. Z Geomorphol 39:273–292Google Scholar
  7. Alongi DM (2002) Present status and future of the world’s mangrove forests. Environ Conserv 29:331–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Azipuru M, Achard F, Blasco F (2000) Global assessment of cover change of the mangrove forests using satellite imagery at medium to high resolution, EEC Research Project No. 15017-1990-05 FIED. ISR FR Joint Research Centre, IspraGoogle Scholar
  9. Bahuguna et al (2007) Coastal habitat of selected marine protected areas: atlas of India. SAC/RESIPA/MESG/PR/59/2007, Space Applications Centre, AhmedabadGoogle Scholar
  10. Bahuguna A, Nayak SR, Roy D (2008) Impact of tsunami and earthquake of 26th December, 2004 on the vital coastal ecosystems of the Andaman and Nicbar Islands assessed using resources at AWiFS data. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 10:229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Balmford A, Bruner A, Cooper P, Costanza R, Farber S, Green RE et al (2002) Economic reasons for conserving nature. Science 297:950–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhavsar DO, Jasrai YT, Pandya HA, Singh V, Patel A, Kalubarme MH (2014) Monitoring mangrove status using remote sensing and geo-informatics in Piran Island, Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat state, India. Int J Sci Eng Res 5(6):999–1005Google Scholar
  13. Blasco F, Lavenu F, Baraza J (1986) Remote sensing data applied to mangroves of Kenya coast. Proc 20th Int Symp Remote Sens Environ 3:1465–1480Google Scholar
  14. Blasco F, Gauqudin T, Rasolofoharinoro MT, Denis J, Aizpura M, Calderou V (1998) Recent advances in mangrove studies using remote sensing data. Aust J Mar Freshwat Res 49(4):287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chaudhary MU (1990) Digital analysis of remote sensing data for monitoring the ecological status of the mangrove forests of Sundarbans in Bangladesh. Proc 23rd Int Symp Remote Sens Environ 1:493–497Google Scholar
  16. Chellamani P, Singh CP, Panigrahy S (2014) Assessment of the health of Indian mangrove ecosystem using multi-temporal remote sensing data. Trop Ecol 55:245–253Google Scholar
  17. Colin FD (1995) Journey amongst mangroves. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, OkinawaGoogle Scholar
  18. Costanza R, Norton BG, Hasekell BD (1992) Ecosystem health: new goals for environmental management. Island Press, Washington, DC, p 266Google Scholar
  19. Dagar JC, Mangia AD, Bandopadhyay AK (1991) Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, p 27Google Scholar
  20. Dahdouh-Guebas F, Jayatissa LP, Di Nitto D, Bosire JO, Lo Seen D, Koedam N (2005) How effective were mangroves as a defence against the recent tsunami? Curr Biol 15:R443–R447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dom Roy S, Krishnan P, George G, Kaliyanmoorthy M, Gautam Bharat MP (2009) Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Central Agricultural Research Institute, Andaman, p 65Google Scholar
  22. Dutrieux E, Denis J, Populus J (1990) Application of SPOT data to a base- line ecological study the Mahakam Delta mangroves, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Oceanol Acta 13:317–326Google Scholar
  23. Ellison JC (1998) Impact of sediment burial on mangroves. Mar Pollut Bull 37(8–11):420–426Google Scholar
  24. Everitt JH, Judd FW, Escobar DE, Davis MR (1996) Integration of remote sensing and spatial information techniques for mapping of black mangroves on Texas coast. J Coast Res 12:64–69Google Scholar
  25. FAO & UNEP (1981) Tropical forest resources assessment project. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  26. FAO forestry paper 153 (2007) The world’s mangroves 1980:2005: a thematic study prepared in the frame work of the global forest resources assessment 2005. FAO, Rome, p 77Google Scholar
  27. Finlayson M, Moser M (1991) Wetlands, Facts on file Inc. Oxford, London p 224Google Scholar
  28. Fisher P, Spalding MD (1993) Protected areas with mangrove habitat. Draft Report World Conservation Centre, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  29. FSI (2013) State of forest report-2013, forest survey of India. Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, Dehradun, p 33Google Scholar
  30. Galloway JA (1982) Distribution and physiographic communities of Australian mangroves. In: Clough BF (ed) Mangrove ecosystems in Australia. Australian National University Press, Canberra, pp 31–54Google Scholar
  31. Gang PO, Agatsiva JL (1992) The current status of mangroves along the Kenyan coast: a case study of Mida creek mangroves based on remote sensing. Hydrobiologia 247:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gao JA (1999) Comparative study on spatial and spectral resolutions of satellite data in mapping mangrove forest. Int J Remote Sens 20:2823–2833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gautam-Bharati MP, Dam Roy S, Kaliyamoortyhy TI (2014) Species diversity and distribution of mangroves in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Bot Mar 57(6):421–432Google Scholar
  34. Giri C, Pengra B, Zhu Z, Singh A, Tieszen L (2007) Monitoring mangrove forest dynamics of the Sunderbans in Bangladesh and India using multi-temporal satellite data from 1973–2000. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 73(1–2):91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Giri C, TieszenLL ZZ, Singh A, Loveland T, Mosek J, Duke N (2010) Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Glob Ecol Biogeogr. doi: 10.1111/j1466-8238.2010.00584x Google Scholar
  36. Giri C, Jordon L, Abbas S, Murali RM, Quamir FL, Pengra B, Thau D (2015) Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia. J Environ Manag 148:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Green EP, Clark CD, Mumby PJ, Edward AJ, Ellis AC (1998) Remote sensing techniques for mangrove mapping. Int J Remote Sens 19(5):935–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gutman G, Byrnes R, Masek J, Convington S, Justice C, Frank S, Kurtz R (2008) Towards monitoring land- cover and land- use change at global scale: the global land survey 2005. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 74:6–10Google Scholar
  39. Heumann BW (2011) Satellite remote sensing of mangrove forests: recent advances and future opportunities. Prog Phys Geogr 35:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hogarth PJ (1999) The biology of mangroves. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Hutchings P, Saenger P (1987) Ecology of mangroves. University of Queensland Press, St LuciaGoogle Scholar
  42. Jagtap TG, Untawale AG, Inamdar SN (1994) Study of mangrove environment of Maharashtra coast using remote sensing data. Indian J Mar Sci 23:90–93Google Scholar
  43. Joseph G (2007) Fundamentals of remote sensing. University Press, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  44. Kanniah DK, Sheikh A, Cracnnell AP, Goh HC, Tan KP, Ho CS, Rasli FN (2015) Satellite images for monitoring of mangrove cover change in a fast growing economic region in southern peninsular Malaysia. Remote Sens 2015:14360–14385. doi: 10.3390/rs71114360 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kathiresan K, Bingham BL (2001) Biology of mangrove and mangrove ecosystems. Adv Mar Biol 40:81–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kathiresan K, Rajendran N (2006) Coastal mangrove forest mitigated tsunami. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 65:601–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kathiresion K (2005) Ecology and environment of mangrove ecosystems. Centre for Advanced Study, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India, pp 106–110Google Scholar
  48. Kovcas JM, Wang J, Floras Verdugo F (2005) Mapping and monitoring of leaf area index at the species level using IKONOS and LAI-2000 sensors for the Agua Brova Lagoon, Mexican Pacific. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 62(1–2):377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kuenzer C, Bluemel A, Gebhardt S, Quoc TV, Stefan D (2011) Remote sensing of mangrove ecosystem: a review. Remote Sens 3(5):879–928Google Scholar
  50. Kumar M, Chauhan HB, Rajawat AS, Ajai (2012a) Application of remote sensing and GIS techniques in understanding changes in mangrove cover in parts of Indus delta around Kori Creek, Gujarat, India. J Environ Res Dev 7(1A):504–511Google Scholar
  51. Kumar M, Chauhan HB, Rajawat AS, Ajai, Kamboj RD (2012b) Monitoring of coastal habitats in Marine National Park, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India, Tech. Report No CZS/MPSG/EPSA/SAC/SN/01/2012. Space Applications Centre, ISRO, AhmedabadGoogle Scholar
  52. Kumar M, Chauhan HB, Rajawat AS, Ajai (2016) Studies of mangrove communities in marine national park and sanctuary, Jamnagar. Gujarat, India, by fusing RISAT-1 SAR data and Resourcesat-2 LISS-IV images. Int J Image Data Fusion. doi: 10.1080/19479832.2016.1232755 Google Scholar
  53. Lee SK, Tan WH, Havanond S (1996) Regeneration and colonization of mangroves on clay- filled reclaimed land in Singapore. Hydrologia 319:23–35Google Scholar
  54. Lugo AE, Snedaker SC (1974) The ecology of mangroves. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 5:39–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mac Nae W (1968) A general account of fauna and flora of mangrove swamps and forests in Indo- Pacific region. Adv Mar Biol 6:73–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mandal RN, Naskar KR (2008) Diversity and classification of Indian mangrove: a review. Trop Ecol 49:131–146Google Scholar
  57. Mukherjee N, Sutherland WJ, Khan N, Beerger U, Schmitz N, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N (2014) Using expert knowledge and modeling to define mangrove composition, functioning and threats and estimate time frame for recovery. Ecol Evol 4(11):2247–2262Google Scholar
  58. Mumby PJ, Clark CD, Green EP, Edwards AJ (1998) Benefits of water column corrections and contextual editing for mapping of coral reefs. Int J Remote Sens 19(1):203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Naskar K, Mandal R (1999) Ecology and biodiversity of Indian Mangroves, part-1 and 2. Daya Publishing House, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  60. Nayak SR, Bahuguna A (2001) Application of remote sensing data to monitor mangroves and other coastal vegetation in India. Indian J Mar Sci 30(4):195–213Google Scholar
  61. Nayak SR, Bahuguna A et al (2003a) Eco-morphological zonation of selected coral reefs of India using remotely sensed data, Scientific Note, SAC/RESA/MWRG/MSCED/SN/16/2003. Space Applications Centre, AhmedabadGoogle Scholar
  62. Nayak SR, Bahuguna A, Shah DG et al (2003b) Community zonation of selected mangrove habitats of India using satellite data, Scientific Note, SAC/RESA/MWRG/MSCED/SN/17/2003. Space Applications Centre, AhmedabadGoogle Scholar
  63. Patel A, Singh V, Khalid M, Kathora J, Kalubarme MH, Pandya HC, Joshi N, Brahmbhatt L (2014) Mapping and monitoring of mangroves in coastal districts of Gujarat state using remote sensing and geo- informatics. Asian J Geo-Inform 14(1):14–26Google Scholar
  64. Primavera JH (1997) Socio-economic impact of shrimp culture. Aquac Res 28:815–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ramasubramanian RT, Gnanappazham L, Ravishankar T, Navamuniyammal M (2006) Mangroves of Godhavari – analysis through remote sensing approach. Wetl Ecol Manag 14:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Reddy CS, Pattnaik C, Murthy MSR (2007) Assessment and monitoring of mangroves of Bhiterkanika wild life sanctuary, Orissa, India using remote sensing and GIS. Curr Sci 92(10):1401–1415Google Scholar
  67. Saenger P, Hegerl EJ, Dovie JDS (1983) Global status of mangrove ecosystem, Commission on Ecology. Paper No 3. World Conservation Union (IUCN), GlandGoogle Scholar
  68. Satapathy DR, Krupadam RJ, Pawan Kumar L, Wate SR (2007) The application of satellite data for the quantification of mangrove loss and coastal management in Godavari estuary, east coast of India. Environ Monit Assess 134:453–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Satyanarayan B, Mohammad KA, Idris IF, Husain ML, Dahdouh-Guebas F (2011) Assessment of mangrove vegetation based on remote sensing and ground truth measurements at Tumpat, Kelantan Delta, East Coast, Malaysia. Int J Remote Sens 32(6):1635–1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Singh HS (2000) Mangroves in Gujarat, Current status and strategy for conservation, 128. GEER Foundation, GandhinagarGoogle Scholar
  71. Singh HS, Yennawar P, Asari RJ, Tatu K, Raval BR (2006) An ecological and socio-economic study in Marine National Park and Sanctuary in the Gulf of Kutch (a comprehensive study on biodiversity and management issues). GEER Foundation, GandhinagarGoogle Scholar
  72. Spalding M, Blasco F, Colin F (1997) World mangrove atlas. Smith Settle, Otley, p 178Google Scholar
  73. Spalding M, Kainuma M, Collins L (2010) World atlas of mangroves. Earthscan, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  74. Thom BG (1984) The mangrove ecosystem: research methods. The mangrove ecosystem research methods. In: Snedaker SC, Snedaker JC (eds) Monographs on oceanographic methodology. UNESCO, Paris, pp 3–15Google Scholar
  75. Tomlinson PB (1986) The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  76. Tomlinson PB (1994) The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  77. UNEP-WCMC (2006) In the frontline: shoreline protection and other ecosystem services from mangroves and coral reefs. UNEP-WCMC, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  78. Untawale AG, Sayeeda W, Jagtap TG (1982) Application of remote sensing technique to study the distribution of mangroves along the estuaries of Goa. Wetland Ecology and Management, Lucknow Publishing House, Lucknow, India, pp 52–67Google Scholar
  79. Upadhyay R, Joshi N, Sampat AC, Verma AK, Patel A, Singh V, Kathora J, Kalubarme MH (2015) Mangrove restoration and regeneration in Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat state, India using remote sensing and geo- informatics. Int J Geosci 6:299–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Valiela I, Bowen JL, York JK (2001) Mangrove forests: one of the world’s threatened major tropical environment. Bioscience 51:807–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wilkie ML, Fortune S (2003) Status and trends of mangrove area world-wide, Forest Resources Assessment Working Paper No 63. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ES, CSIRSpace Applications Centre, ISROAhmedabadIndia

Personalised recommendations