Egyptian Nile Delta Coastal Lagoons: Alteration and Subsequent Restoration

  • Ayman A. El-GamalEmail author
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 21)


Wetlands and coastal lagoons are valuable and sensitive environments as recognized by Ramsar Convention. Egypt has many forms of wetlands. Mariout, Edku, Burullus and Manzala are considered as the most important lagoons and wetlands in the Egyptian Mediterranean coastal area. The Egyptian Ministry of Environmental Affairs (MENA) updated the National Biodiversity, Strategy and Action plan (NBSAP) for the years (2015–2030). One of the goals of this strategy is to minimize the rate of wetlands loss by 50%. The challenges of the Egyptian coastal lagoons were summarized to include pollution, water deterioration, lake of management, reduction of area, aquatic plants, habitat loss, climate change, siltation of the outlets, eutrophication, awareness, illegal fish practice, over fishing and decline of fish yield. Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) initiate monitoring program to check the water quality of the coastal lakes and its adjacent marine area. The northern lakes have discussed to describe their morphology, environmental status & stress and their water quality according to recent measurements of the EEAA. Many efforts have been done for environmental conservation and socioeconomic development to the coastal lagoon such as El-Burullus Lake is protected by the Egyptian Prime Ministerial Decree 1444/1998 and is a Ramsar Site. Edku and Mariout Lagoons still need more efforts to environment conservation for sustainable development. In order to improvement of coastal lagoons resilience, periodical monitoring of water quality and pollution sources, quantities and type of discharges from these sources became perquisite to determine its impacts of these lakes.


Coastal wetlands Lagoons Nile Delta Water quality Environment resilience 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Coastal Research InstituteNational Water Research CenterAlexandriaEgypt

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