Egypt’s Future Civil–Military Relations
Arafat analyzes six international models (Pakistani, Indonesian, Portuguese, Spanish, Latin American, and Turkish) to provide insights into Egypt’s CMR. Arafat suggests a ’political control ’ model for the Egyptian armed forces rather than a ‘democratic civilian control ’ model. ‘Egypt’s Future Civil–Military Relations’ concludes that CMRs in Egypt have been at a complete standstill with the removal of Morsi and the rise of Al-Sisi to power in 2014. CMR reform in Egypt is not a priority of the Egyptian regime, or even an option in the short term because the military elite and the presidential establishment/political leadership belong to the same establishment and share a worldview. Latin-American and/or pre-Erdoğan Turkish civil–military relations could be suitable similar models for examining Egypt’s civil–military relations .