Public Policies Towards Marine Protection: Benchmarking Estonia to Finland and Sweden

  • Tea NõmmannEmail author
  • Sirje Pädam


This chapter compares the approaches for cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the new measures in the EU Marine Strategy Framework of Estonia, Finland and Sweden. Proposed measures are expressed as intended objectives rather than in terms of their implementation. Uncertainty regarding the choice of policy instruments for implementation adds to the challenges of appraising the environmental impacts and to the estimation of costs and benefits. In order to improve practices, it is important to build knowledge about policy instruments to protect marine environments. Further, this chapter examines the argument that in order to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) across the Baltic Sea, it is important to consider cross-country coordination of measures, as one country alone cannot achieve GES in its national marine area.


Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) EU marine strategy framework 



An early version of this chapter was presented at the International Workshop on Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region, 11 May 2016 at Södertörn University. We thank our discussant Katarina Elofsson for providing helpful comments.


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© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Finance and Economics, Tallinn School of Economics and Business administrationTallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstonia
  2. 2.Chair of Environmental Economics, Tallinn School of Economics and Business administrationTallinn University of TechnologyTallinnEstonia

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